Cancer

Cancer

  Types of Cancer, Main causes, People who are at risk and Medical Advice for Prevention

 

Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of defected body cells. These abnormal cells combine to form benign and malignant tumors. Approximately more than two hundred types of cancer originate from different parts of the body. Cancer cells can invade the normal body tissues, which results in the spread of disorder. Benign tumors do not travel to the distant site of the body, but the malignant tumor can spread to other body organs.

 

In a healthy body, the damaged cells may repair or die by different physiological mechanisms. But in the cancerous state, these cells do not die but keep on dividing to produce more abnormal cells. The division rate of these abnormal cells is much faster than the normal cell division. Due to this abnormal division, a mass of cancer cells develops.

Mostly the abnormal cells in early-stage invade the surrounding structure. With increased severity, they start to break down from the primary mass and travel to distant sites via lymphatics or blood system. The broken cells lodge in the other organs and start to grow there. This process of traveling and growing of cancer cells to the other body parts is known as metastasis.[i]

Causes and Risk Factors of Cancer:

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Any factor or stimulus that disturbs normal body development and affects cellular functions can cause cancer. Several cancer causes and risk factors are still unknown. Some cancers are known to develop from lifestyle abnormalities, genetic makeup, and environmental triggers.

Causation of cancer is more often due to a combination of various factors. Initiating factor of cancer is difficult to understand, but researchers have provided the likely causes of cancer that can contribute to initiating cancer development.

  • Various microorganisms can cause cancer, such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Schistosoma spp, Helicobacter pylori, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • Toxic or chemical exposure in people working in different industries can be a major cause of cancer. The most common industrial carcinogens include asbestos, cadmium, nickel, benzidine, aflatoxins. Tobacco and cigarette smoking are also a significant cause of cancer. Cigarette smoke contains approximately 60 carcinogenic toxins and chemicals.
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation sources, such as radon, ultraviolet rays from the sun, uranium, X-ray emitting elements, alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays.
  • Genetics: Several specific genes are responsible for cancer causation. These include ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and colorectal cancer, skin cancer, and gastric cancer.[ii]
  • New trials and studies have suggested some other risks that can increase cancer causation. International Agency for Research on Cancer has suggested that red meats like pork, lamb, and beef can increase the risk of cancer along with processed meats such as preserved, salted, smoked, and cured meat. Barbecued meat taken in larger quantities can cause cancer because of the formation of carcinogenic compounds at higher temperatures.

 

It is significant to point out that everybody is at risk of cancer because we are exposed to cancer-causing agents such as sunlight, X-rays, and secondary cigarette smoke throughout our lifetime. Most people do not develop cancer. Others may have a genetic makeup that supports cancer development, but they are not affected by the disease during the whole life. Several factors are responsible such as higher the exposure results in increased cancer causation. Maybe most people are not exposed to the cancer-causing agent as much as required for the occurrence of cancer.

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Regarding genetics, there may be a lack of defective genetic expressions to cause cancer. Some people have a strong and healthy immune system that does not allow cancer cells to survive and divide. Besides these conditions, there is strong evidence that certain dietary and lifestyle measures in combination with healthy immunity can significantly decrease the chances of cancer. So, it is difficult to assign any particular factor to be a cause of cancer. Other risk factors that have a shred of minor evidence to be the cause of cancer include obesity, hormonal imbalance, no exercise, low energy radiations emitting from cell phones, pickled vegetables, and caffeine.[iii]

Types of Cancer

The main types of cancer, depending upon the nature of tissue from which they originate, are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, and lymphoma.

1.    Carcinoma

It is the most common type of cancer. It originates from the skin and epithelial lining of different organs such as the kidney and liver. Carcinomas consist of abnormal cells that divide uncontrolled and may spread to other body parts or not. Cancer that remains in the organ from which it originates is called carcinoma in situ. Other more aggressive forms are called invasive carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.

Different types of carcinomas can occur in various body parts such as Basal cell carcinoma (the most common type of skin cancer that develops in basal cell layer or lower epidermis), Squamous cell carcinoma (also a type of skin cancer that mostly occurs in the epidermis), Renal cell carcinoma (develops in small tubules of the kidney), Ductal carcinoma in situ (breast cancer confined to the lining of ducts), and Invasive ductal carcinoma (breast cancer that evades the breast tissue after leaving the milk ducts).1

2.      Sarcoma

It is another form of cancer that mostly develops in soft tissues and bones. Soft tissue sarcoma can occur in different body parts such as lymph or blood vessels (Angiosarcoma), neuromuscular cells of the gastrointestinal tract (Gastrointestinal stromal tumor), fat tissue present at the back of abdomen or knee and in the thigh (Liposarcoma), smooth muscles of the abdomen (Leiomyosarcoma), stem cells of joints (Synovial sarcoma),

the outer lining of nerves (Neurofibrosarcoma), skeletal muscle (Rhabdomyosarcoma), connective tissue (Fibrosarcomas and Myxofibrosarcoma). Less common soft tissue sarcomas include Mesenchymomas, Vascular sarcoma, Schwannoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma. Bone sarcomas include Osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, and Fibrosarcoma.[iv][v]

3.      Melanoma

It is a type of skin cancer that originates from the melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells. It typically arises in the skin but also occurs in the intestines, eye, and mouth. It is a very aggressive tumor and destroys the nearby tissue. It has given the name malignant melanoma because of high metastatic potential. It has four main types.

First is the Superficial spreading melanoma that is the most common type and accounts for 70% of total malignant melanomas. It tends to grow radially outward and vertically downward to spread across the skin. It usually develops at limbs and trunk. The second type is nodular melanoma, which grows downward into the skin. It may be polypoid or pedunculated shaped. It typically arises at the face, back, and chest.

The third type is Lentigo malignant melanoma, which occurs in old age. It starts with less aggressive in situ tumor in the outer layer of skin and then grows downward into the skin. It typically develops on ears, arms, and face. The fourth type is the rarest, named as Acral lentiginous melanoma, and arises under the nails and at the sole of the feet.[vi]

4.    Lymphomas

It is a blood cancer that affects lymphocytes. Due to affected lymphocytes, the whole lymphatic system gets involved that includes the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect all areas and organs throughout the body. It has two types Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.[vii]

Most common types of cancer affecting different organs include:

  • Breast cancer
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Renal cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Hepatic cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Pancreatic cancer

People who are at Increased Risk of Cancer:

  • Age more than 55 years
  • Family history of cancer or immunodeficient diseases
  • Tobacco addicts especially, cigarette smokers
  • Obese people
  • Alcohol addicts
  • People more prone to viral infections, such as Ebstein-bar virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • People related to occupations like asbestos industries, cement industry, glass industry, etc.
  • Those are working in X-ray laboratories or any other occupation in which they are exposed to radiation, such as atomic and hydrogen bomb industries.
  • Racial factors are also important.[viii]

Medical Advice for Cancer Prevention:

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  • Don’t use tobacco products. Using tobacco products increases the risk of cancers, such as lung, throat, mouth, bladder, pancreas, larynx, kidney, and cervix. Tobacco chewing causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Passive smoking also makes the person more prone to cancer. Avoiding smoking and other tobacco products are very vital for cancer prevention.
  • Various lifestyle changes can help with cancer prevention. Most important includes eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains. Obesity is another risk factor for cancer, so eating less calorie foods, including fat and refined sugars. Avoid alcohol and processed red meats.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight and regular exercise can prevent against prostate, lung, renal, and breast cancers. Increased physical activity helps in maintaining weight and lower the risk of cancer.[ix]
  • Avoid excessive sunlight. This can be done by avoiding going outside during midday sun when sun rays are strongest. Try wearing loose-fitting, bright or dark, and tightly woven dresses. Use sunglasses and try to remain in the shade. Tanning sunlamps and beds are more damaging than sunlight.
  • Protection from certain viruses can also help against cancer. So, get vaccinated for viruses, especially Hepatitis B and Human papillomavirus (HPV). Hepatitis B is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver cancers. HPV is transmitted sexually and can cause endometrial, cervical, and genital cancers.
  • Avoid behavior that might increase the risk of cancer. These include avoiding the use of needles and using condoms during sex. Limiting the number of sexual partners helps to prevent HIV and HPV infections that can decrease the risk of cancer.[x]
  • Woman weight loss illustration Free Vector

 

 

References

1. Wei, E., Wolin, K., & Colditz, G. (2010). Time Course of Risk Factors in Cancer Etiology and Progression. Journal Of Clinical Oncology, 28(26), 4052-4057. doi: 10.1200/jco.2009.26.9324

2.Ames, B., & Gold, L. (1997). The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: Gaining Perspective. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105, 865. doi: 10.2307/3433296

3.  Danaei, G., Vander Hoorn, S., Lopez, A., Murray, C., & Ezzati, M. (2005). Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioral and environmental risk factors. The Lancet, 366(9499), 1784-1793. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67725-2

4. M Choong, P., & Vodanovich, D. (2018). Soft-tissue sarcomas. Indian Journal Of Orthopaedics, 52(1), 35. doi: 10.4103/ortho.ijortho_220_17

5. Potter, J., Jones, K., & Barrott, J. (2018). Sarcoma–The standard-bearer in cancer discovery. Critical Reviews In Oncology/Hematology, 126, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.03.007

6. Lipsker, D. (2006). Growth Rate, Early Detection, and Prevention of Melanoma. Archives Of Dermatology, 142(12). doi: 10.1001/archderm.142.12.1638

7. Shanbhag, S., & Ambinder, R. (2017). Hodgkin lymphoma: A review and update on recent progress. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 68(2), 116-132. doi: 10.3322/caac.21438

8.Stein, C., & Colditz, G. (2004). Modifiable risk factors for cancer. British Journal Of Cancer, 90(2), 299-303. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601509

9.White, M., Peipins, L., Watson, M., Trivers, K., Holman, D., & Rodriguez, J. (2013). Cancer Prevention for the Next Generation. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 52(5), S1-S7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.02.016

10. Osborne, M., Boyle, P., & Lipkin, M. (1997). Cancer prevention. The Lancet, 349, S27-S30. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(97)90018-0

36  AWESOME QUOTES TO A BEAUTIFUL LIFE

36 AWESOME QUOTES TO A BEAUTIFUL LIFE

 

 Learn  Tips For  a  Beautiful  Happier Life 

 

 

 Take a 10-30 minutes walk every day & while you walk, SMILE…..

 

1. Take a 10-30 minute walk every day & while you walk, SMILE. It is the ultimate antidepressant.

2. Sit in silence for at least 10 minutes each day

3. When you wake up in the morning, pray to ask God’s guidance for your purpose, today.

4. Eat more foods that grow on trees and plants and eat less food that is manufactured in plants.

5. Drink green tea and plenty of water. Eat blueberries, broccoli, and almonds.

6. Try to make at least three people smile each day.

7. Don’t waste your precious energy on gossip, energy vampires, and the issue of the past and negative thoughts of things you can’t control. Instead, invest your energy in the positive present moment.

8. Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a college kid with a maxed out charge card.

9. Life isn’t fair, but it still good.

10. Life is too short to waste time hating anyone. forgive them for everything!

11. Don’t take yourself so seriously. No one else does.

12. You don’t have to win every argument. Agree to disagree.

13. Make peace with your past so it won’t spoil the present.

14. Don’t compare your life to others. You have no idea what their journey is all about.

15. No one is in a change of your happiness except you.

16. Frame every so-called disaster with these words: “in five years, wills this matter?”

 17.No matter how you feel, get up, dress up, and show up.

18. What other people think of you is none of your business.


19. Time heals everything. A however good or bad situation is, it will change.

20. Your job won’t take care of you when you are sick. Your friend will. Stay in touch.

21. Envy is a waste of time. You have already all you need.

22. Each night before you go to bed, pray to god and be thanks full for what you’ll accomplish today!

23. The best is yet to come… Believe.

24. Do the right thing!

25. Remember “Karma has no menu you get served what you deserved.”

26. Call your family often.

27. Help the needy. Be a “giver”, not a “taker”.

28. Forgive everyone for everything for your own peace.

29. Enjoy every moment, it will not last forever

30. Do not judge someone ‘s steps before you walk few meters in his shoes.

31. Spend time with your friends and family.

32. Avoid debt, live with what you have.

33. Do not stop learning, make a classroom inside yourself, learn from everything around you.

34. Make NO  a full sentence, it doesn’t require explanation.

35.Each night before you go to bed complete the following statements: “I am thankful for…” – “Today I accomplished…”

36. Remember that you are too blessed to be stressed.

 You are the master of your Happiness Game go for it until you win the Cup.        Beatrice M.

 

Nelson Mandela speaking on courage

 

 

 

 

What is the meaning of Easter, Why Easter Eggs,  Easter bunny ?

What is the meaning of Easter, Why Easter Eggs, Easter bunny ?

Theological significance

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Theological significance

Easter is a celebration of Jesus Christ resurrection.
Easter is one of the fundamental principles of the Christian faith.

Jesus Christ’s resurrection constitutes proof that he is the son of God, the Messiah and that his teachings were very well founded. Through the resurrection, Jesus confirmed the unique power of the one who sent him and who will judge the world with divine justice.

Death was defeated on the cross at Golgotha ​​left the victory to live. It also means that by his resurrection those who believe in him (Jesus Christ) receive eternal life. Everyone who believes in Jesus Christ will rise from the dead and live with him beside God.

Easter Bible Verses 

Matthew 20:18-19 18 “We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be delivered over to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death 19 and will hand him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day, he will be raised to life!”

Mark 16:1-4 1When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint Jesus’ body. 2 Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise, they were on their way to the tomb 3 and they asked each other, “Who will roll the stone away from the entrance of the tomb?” 4 But when they looked up, they saw that the stone, which was very large, had been rolled away.

Mark 16: 5-6 5 As they entered the tomb, they saw a young man dressed in a white robe sitting on the right side, and they were alarmed. 6 “Don’t be alarmed,” he said. “You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him.

Matthew 28:5-7 5 The angel said to the women, “Do not be afraid, for I know that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified. 6 He is not here; he has risen, just as he said. Come and see the place where he lay. 7 Then go quickly and tell his disciples: ‘He has risen from the dead and is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him.’ Now I have told you.”

The Passover (the resurrection of Jesus) is also related to the Jewish Passover (Exodus from Egypt) mentioned in the Old Testament.

       Pessa’h or Passover

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Passover Feast or Jewish Passover is one of the three pilgrimage festivals of Judaism prescribed by the Hebrew Bible that commemorates the exodus of the Hebrews out of Egypt and the inauguration of the annual agricultural cycle. This festival lasts 8 days during which specific rites, recipes, and customs take place.

              The Last Supper

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In the Old Testament the Bible talks of the Last Supper,
The Last Supper (also called the Holy Last Supper ) is a very important Dinner.
For Christians Last Supper symbolizes remembrance of the sacrifice of the “Lamb of God”. This is the last dinner that Jesus Christ shared with his disciples in the upper room on Holy Thursday before being delivered and crucified on Good Friday.
During this Dinner, he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. Jesus took the bread and sanctified it, and gave to his disciples afterward and he took the cup of wine sanctified it and gave it to his disciples. The broken bread represents the body of Jesus crucified and the wine symbolizes his blood that was shed for the sin of the world. Jesus asked to make this very strong symbol in his memory. Until today it is part of the Mass in Christian Churches

        Bible verses 

Luke 22:7-38

Then came the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover.”

“Where do you want us to prepare for it?” they asked.

10 He replied, “As you enter the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him to the house that he enters, 11 and say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher asks: Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 12 He will show you a large room upstairs, all furnished. Make preparations there.”

13 They left and found things just as Jesus had told them. So they prepared the Passover.

14 When the hour came, Jesus and his apostles reclined at the table.15 And he said to them, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”

17 After taking the cup, he gave thanks and said, “Take this and divide it among you. 18 For I tell you I will not drink again from the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”

19 And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.”

20 In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.[a] 21 But the hand of him who is going to betray me is with mine on the table. 22 The Son of Man will go as it has been decreed. But woe to that man who betrays him!” 23 They began to question among themselves which of them it might be who would do this.

24 A dispute also arose among them as to which of them was considered to be greatest. 25 Jesus said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who exercise authority over them call themselves Benefactors. 26 But you are not to be like that. Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules like the one who serves. 27 For who is greater, the one who is at the table or the one who serves? Is it not the one who is at the table? But I am among you as one who serves. 28 You are those who have stood by me in my trials. 29 And I confer on you a kingdom, just as my Father conferred one on me, 30 so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

31 “Simon, Simon, Satan has asked to sift all of you as wheat. 32 But I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned back, strengthen your brothers.”

33 But he replied, “Lord, I am ready to go with you to prison and to death.”

34 Jesus answered, “I tell you, Peter before the rooster crows today, you will deny three times that you know me.”

35 Then Jesus asked them, “When I sent you without purse, bag or sandals, did you lack anything?”

“Nothing,” they answered.

36 He said to them, “But now if you have a purse, take it, and also a bag; and if you don’t have a sword, sell your cloak and buy one. 37 It is written: ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors. I tell you that this must be fulfilled in me. Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfillment.”

38 The disciples said, “See, Lord, here are two swords.”

“That’s enough!” he replied.

         Easter eggs

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Also called Paschal eggs, are sometimes decorated eggs. They are offered as Easter gifts.

In Christianity, Easter eggs symbolize the empty tomb of Jesus, from which Jesus resurrected.

In ancient tradition, they used dyed and painted chicken eggs. Today real eggs are more used in Central and Eastern Europe tradition.

With time modern lifestyle completely modified this tradition for commercial reasons or other. Generally, chicken eggs have been replaced by colored chocolate eggs, hand-carved wooden eggs or plastic eggs. Many years ago, Easter eggs were more colored in red the color that symbolizes Christ’s blood shed on the cross

Mesopotamia’s Christians, of Crete, transmitted this tradition in Siberia, Russia (USSR) countries by orthodox churches.

In Europe, Protestant and Catholic Churches brought this tradition largely influenced by pre-dynastic Egyptian practices.

          Easter bunny or Easter Rabbit

Image result for ukrainian easter eggs images Easter bunny or Easter Rabbit

Easter Bunny also called Easter Hare is an imaginary legend an Easter symbol, (as Santa Claus for Christmas) Easter Bunny is presented as a messenger that deliver eggs, candy, and sometimes also toys to the homes for .children
in some countries, the Easter rabbit plays the role of a judge so children can have good behavior, there are so many other stories around this folkloric figure
When
When   Roman Catholic religion became dominant in Germany in the 1500s it merged with ingrained pagan beliefs.
This Legendary figure has arrived in North America by German Immigrants. Over the years we are crossing with easter Rabbit everywhere on the commercial store shelves.

Only one thing I am sure of is that Easter Bunny or Easter Rabbit is not written or taught biblically.

Happy Easter from Tell us How Team

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