Types of Cancer, Main causes, People who are at risk and Medical Advice for Prevention
Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of defected body cells. These abnormal cells combine to form benign and malignant tumors. Approximately more than two hundred types of cancer originate from different parts of the body. Cancer cells can invade the normal body tissues, which results in the spread of disorder. Benign tumors do not travel to the distant site of the body, but the malignant tumor can spread to other body organs.
In a healthy body, the damaged cells may repair or die by different physiological mechanisms. But in the cancerous state, these cells do not die but keep on dividing to produce more abnormal cells. The division rate of these abnormal cells is much faster than the normal cell division. Due to this abnormal division, a mass of cancer cells develops.
Mostly the abnormal cells in early-stage invade the surrounding structure. With increased severity, they start to break down from the primary mass and travel to distant sites via lymphatics or blood system. The broken cells lodge in the other organs and start to grow there. This process of traveling and growing of cancer cells to the other body parts is known as metastasis.[i]
Causes and Risk Factors of Cancer:
Any factor or stimulus that disturbs normal body development and affects cellular functions can cause cancer. Several cancer causes and risk factors are still unknown. Some cancers are known to develop from lifestyle abnormalities, genetic makeup, and environmental triggers.
Causation of cancer is more often due to a combination of various factors. Initiating factor of cancer is difficult to understand, but researchers have provided the likely causes of cancer that can contribute to initiating cancer development.
Various microorganisms can cause cancer, such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Schistosoma spp, Helicobacter pylori, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Toxic or chemical exposure in people working in different industries can be a major cause of cancer. The most common industrial carcinogens include asbestos, cadmium, nickel, benzidine, aflatoxins. Tobacco and cigarette smoking are also a significant cause of cancer. Cigarette smoke contains approximately 60 carcinogenic toxins and chemicals.
Exposure to ionizing radiation sources, such as radon, ultraviolet rays from the sun, uranium, X-ray emitting elements, alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays.
Genetics: Several specific genes are responsible for cancer causation. These include ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and colorectal cancer, skin cancer, and gastric cancer.[ii]
New trials and studies have suggested some other risks that can increase cancer causation. International Agency for Research on Cancer has suggested that red meats like pork, lamb, and beef can increase the risk of cancer along with processed meats such as preserved, salted, smoked, and cured meat. Barbecued meat taken in larger quantities can cause cancer because of the formation of carcinogenic compounds at higher temperatures.
It is significant to point out that everybody is at risk of cancer because we are exposed to cancer-causing agents such as sunlight, X-rays, and secondary cigarette smoke throughout our lifetime. Most people do not develop cancer. Others may have a genetic makeup that supports cancer development, but they are not affected by the disease during the whole life. Several factors are responsible such as higher the exposure results in increased cancer causation. Maybe most people are not exposed to the cancer-causing agent as much as required for the occurrence of cancer.
Regarding genetics, there may be a lack of defective genetic expressions to cause cancer. Some people have a strong and healthy immune system that does not allow cancer cells to survive and divide. Besides these conditions, there is strong evidence that certain dietary and lifestyle measures in combination with healthy immunity can significantly decrease the chances of cancer. So, it is difficult to assign any particular factor to be a cause of cancer. Other risk factors that have a shred of minor evidence to be the cause of cancer include obesity, hormonal imbalance, no exercise, low energy radiations emitting from cell phones, pickled vegetables, and caffeine.[iii]
Types of Cancer
The main types of cancer, depending upon the nature of tissue from which they originate, are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, and lymphoma.
It is the most common type of cancer. It originates from the skin and epithelial lining of different organs such as the kidney and liver. Carcinomas consist of abnormal cells that divide uncontrolled and may spread to other body parts or not. Cancer that remains in the organ from which it originates is called carcinoma in situ. Other more aggressive forms are called invasive carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
Different types of carcinomas can occur in various body parts such as Basal cell carcinoma (the most common type of skin cancer that develops in basal cell layer or lower epidermis), Squamous cell carcinoma (also a type of skin cancer that mostly occurs in the epidermis), Renal cell carcinoma (develops in small tubules of the kidney), Ductal carcinoma in situ (breast cancer confined to the lining of ducts), and Invasive ductal carcinoma (breast cancer that evades the breast tissue after leaving the milk ducts).1
It is another form of cancer that mostly develops in soft tissues and bones. Soft tissue sarcoma can occur in different body parts such as lymph or blood vessels (Angiosarcoma), neuromuscular cells of the gastrointestinal tract (Gastrointestinal stromal tumor), fat tissue present at the back of abdomen or knee and in the thigh (Liposarcoma), smooth muscles of the abdomen (Leiomyosarcoma), stem cells of joints (Synovial sarcoma),
the outer lining of nerves (Neurofibrosarcoma), skeletal muscle (Rhabdomyosarcoma), connective tissue (Fibrosarcomas and Myxofibrosarcoma). Less common soft tissue sarcomas include Mesenchymomas, Vascular sarcoma, Schwannoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma. Bone sarcomas include Osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, and Fibrosarcoma.[iv][v]
It is a type of skin cancer that originates from the melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells. It typically arises in the skin but also occurs in the intestines, eye, and mouth. It is a very aggressive tumor and destroys the nearby tissue. It has given the name malignant melanoma because of high metastatic potential. It has four main types.
First is the Superficial spreading melanoma that is the most common type and accounts for 70% of total malignant melanomas. It tends to grow radially outward and vertically downward to spread across the skin. It usually develops at limbs and trunk. The second type is nodular melanoma, which grows downward into the skin. It may be polypoid or pedunculated shaped. It typically arises at the face, back, and chest.
The third type is Lentigo malignant melanoma, which occurs in old age. It starts with less aggressive in situ tumor in the outer layer of skin and then grows downward into the skin. It typically develops on ears, arms, and face. The fourth type is the rarest, named as Acral lentiginous melanoma, and arises under the nails and at the sole of the feet.[vi]
It is a blood cancer that affects lymphocytes. Due to affected lymphocytes, the whole lymphatic system gets involved that includes the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect all areas and organs throughout the body. It has two types Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.[vii]
Most common types of cancer affecting different organs include:
People who are at Increased Risk of Cancer:
Age more than 55 years
Family history of cancer or immunodeficient diseases
Tobacco addicts especially, cigarette smokers
People more prone to viral infections, such as Ebstein-bar virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV)
People related to occupations like asbestos industries, cement industry, glass industry, etc.
Those are working in X-ray laboratories or any other occupation in which they are exposed to radiation, such as atomic and hydrogen bomb industries.
Don’t use tobacco products. Using tobacco products increases the risk of cancers, such as lung, throat, mouth, bladder, pancreas, larynx, kidney, and cervix. Tobacco chewing causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Passive smoking also makes the person more prone to cancer. Avoiding smoking and other tobacco products are very vital for cancer prevention.
Various lifestyle changes can help with cancer prevention. Most important includes eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains. Obesity is another risk factor for cancer, so eating less calorie foods, including fat and refined sugars. Avoid alcohol and processed red meats.
Maintaining a healthy weight and regular exercise can prevent against prostate, lung, renal, and breast cancers. Increased physical activity helps in maintaining weight and lower the risk of cancer.[ix]
Avoid excessive sunlight. This can be done by avoiding going outside during midday sun when sun rays are strongest. Try wearing loose-fitting, bright or dark, and tightly woven dresses. Use sunglasses and try to remain in the shade. Tanning sunlamps and beds are more damaging than sunlight.
Protection from certain viruses can also help against cancer. So, get vaccinated for viruses, especially Hepatitis B and Human papillomavirus (HPV). Hepatitis B is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver cancers. HPV is transmitted sexually and can cause endometrial, cervical, and genital cancers.
Avoid behavior that might increase the risk of cancer. These include avoiding the use of needles and using condoms during sex. Limiting the number of sexual partners helps to prevent HIV and HPV infections that can decrease the risk of cancer.[x]
1. Wei, E., Wolin, K., & Colditz, G. (2010).Time Course of Risk Factors in Cancer Etiology and Progression. Journal Of Clinical Oncology, 28(26), 4052-4057. doi: 10.1200/jco.2009.26.9324
2.Ames, B., & Gold, L. (1997).The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: Gaining Perspective. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105, 865. doi: 10.2307/3433296
3. Danaei, G., Vander Hoorn, S., Lopez, A., Murray, C., & Ezzati, M. (2005). Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioral and environmental risk factors. The Lancet, 366(9499), 1784-1793. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67725-2
4. M Choong, P., & Vodanovich, D. (2018).Soft-tissue sarcomas. Indian Journal Of Orthopaedics, 52(1), 35. doi: 10.4103/ortho.ijortho_220_17
5. Potter, J., Jones, K., & Barrott, J. (2018).Sarcoma–The standard-bearer in cancer discovery. Critical Reviews In Oncology/Hematology, 126, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.03.007
6. Lipsker, D. (2006).Growth Rate, Early Detection, and Prevention of Melanoma. Archives Of Dermatology, 142(12). doi: 10.1001/archderm.142.12.1638
7. Shanbhag, S., & Ambinder, R. (2017). Hodgkin lymphoma: A review and update on recent progress. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 68(2), 116-132. doi: 10.3322/caac.21438
8.Stein, C., & Colditz, G. (2004). Modifiable risk factors for cancer. British Journal Of Cancer, 90(2), 299-303. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601509
9.White, M., Peipins, L., Watson, M., Trivers, K., Holman, D., & Rodriguez, J. (2013). Cancer Prevention for the Next Generation. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 52(5), S1-S7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.02.016
10. Osborne, M., Boyle, P., & Lipkin, M. (1997).Cancer prevention. The Lancet, 349, S27-S30. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(97)90018-0
It should not be missed in order to refuel your body from functional metabolic changes during long hours
of sleep. It is best to include carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for an ideal nutrition such as combinations of fresh fruits, bread toast and breakfast cereals with milk.
2–Maintain a well-balanced diet for a healthy living.
A well-balanced diet is eating different kinds of nutritious foods in proportion. It will boost
your energy and will improve your welfare. Excessive as well as
deficiency of specific vitamins and minerals can also cause undesirable to your health.
3-Be conscious of how much salt you take in during snacks and meals.
The table salt is sodium chloride which is widely used as a flavor enhancer. High sodium intake is a risk factor for diseases like high blood, heartburn, osteoporosis, and other cardiovascular diseases.
Limit sodium intake by just reducing your consumption of salty foods without taking the option of salt substitutes.
4-Stay away from the buffet or
eat-all-you-can meals because it will possibly tempt you to eat too much to get a fair value of what you have paid.
Otherwise, you can go for nutritious foods such as fresh fruits,
vegetable salads, and low-fat foods. Stand firm and resist your craving to refill your plate for the second time.
5-Limit intake of processed foods as in canned goods,
refrigerated and dried foods. The food processing alters the natural components of the foods which makes it less beneficial to the body. The use of chemicals
to preserve, control and enhance the flavor can be more damaging to the systems of the body than enhancing health.
6-Consider eating whole foods.
Whole foods are nutritious foods having its natural compounds intact. It is neither processed nor refined. It
does not contain added chemicals such as flavorings, preservatives, and other ingredients. Start eating whole foods by adding slices of fresh fruits and vegetables to each and every meal.
7-The best and healthy way of preparing poultry
for a meal is to remove the visible skin and fats prior to cooking. Roast, bake or broil poultry
instead of deep frying to prevent oil absorption. Among the parts, the chicken breasts contain high protein and low fat which make it the better choice cuts.
8-Water is vital to sustaining a healthy life.
It is recommended to drink at least 8 ounces of 8 glasses of water every day. It aids the cells,
tissues, and organs to function normally. Body water deficit or dehydration can cause serious damage to kidneys and other organs
which may result in mental confusion, coma and even death if not given medical intervention immediately.
9-Maintain a low-fat diet.
Foods that are naturally low in fats are fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains. Make sure to check the product labels you buy from the market. The fat content label per serving should not be
greater than 2 to 3 grams. It is best to choose the fat content of 1 gram of fat per 100 calories.
10–Supplement your body with iron nutrition.
Iron can only be taken from food sources such as red meats, fish, poultry, cereals, leafy vegetables, and raisins. It serves as a fuel to energize our body by helping in red blood cell production. Take iron-rich foods with Vitamin C for effective iron absorption.
11. Eat banana for breakfast
It is an effective weight loss plan known as the miracle Morning Banana Diet. In this diet plan, all you need is to eat a banana for breakfast; drink adequate water; no more eating after 8:00 PM and sleep before midnight. It is proven to be effective since bananas increase metabolism.
12-Include high-fiber foods in your diet plan.
It is a simple means to maintain health and physical fitness. High-fiber foods can be found in
whole foods such as fruits, legumes, nuts, grains, and vegetables.
Fiber contents can help enhance your energy and will keep you away from diseases such as cardiovascular disease.
13- Carbohydrates do not increase weight.
It is not advisable to cut down carbohydrates intake because it is the primary food source of energy
and contains low fat. The side dishes eaten with rice and the spreads
placed in the sandwiches are the ones that need to be limited if losing weight is your goal.
14-Treat yourself for a non-fat yogurt and combine it with your favorite fruit
slices. Dairy products such as yogurt are naturally rich in Calcium to strengthen bones and vitamin A which plays a great role in making our skin beautiful. Non-fat yogurt also contains friendly bacteria known as probiotics to enhance digestive processes.
15- Drink orange juice or eat orange every day.
Citrus fruits are high in Vitamin C that can enhance our immune system which improves our
resistance to infection. It also facilitates in the absorption of iron for the prevention of anemia. Other sources of vitamin C include berries, tomatoes, kiwi and green leafy vegetables.
16-Enjoy eating steamed oysters.
Oysters are rich in zinc. Zinc is needed for the production of cells and the repair of tissues. It also helps in the
normal functioning of the immune system and the reproductive system. Zinc can also be found in other food sources such as beef and pork.
17.-To have a brighter and healthier eye,
eat foods rich with vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, and lutein. These are all antioxidants that can
decrease your risk of eye problems especially age-related macular degeneration which can cause blindness as you grow old. It can all be taken from green leafy vegetables.
18. Don’t eat if you are not hungry.
It will cause you a lot of weight. The moment you feel hungry, drink water because sometimes we respond
to our thirst by eating. After drinking and you still feel the same way, eat but don’t overdo it. It slowly and enjoy your food without adding any more foods to your plate.
19-Control yourself from eating too much during holidays and parties.
Foods prepared can be very mouth watery but you need to resist it by staying away from the preparation. As much as possible, set in your mind that you need to eat only nutritious foods at a nonexcessive amount.
20-Be conscious of what you are drinking.
Sodas, coffee, energy drink, and alcohol drinks contain a lot of calories. It concentrates more on
making your belly fats bigger. When you feel thirsty, the cheapest and most helpful for your body is to grab a glass of water or diluted freshly squeezed juice instead.
21. Junk foods literally mean useless.
It does not do any good to your body. It is high in sodium, calories and a lot of chemical ingredients to
attract buyers with artificial flavoring. Instead of buying junk foods for your snacks and break time, substitute it with nutritious fruits and vegetables.
22-Reduce your sugar gradually
in your hot or cold drinks until you don’t need it anymore. White sugar does not contain any vitamins or
minerals, and brown sugar contains a very small amount of no nutritional importance. Sugar and honey are also fattening and can cause tooth decay.
23-Give fruit or toys
instead of giving candies and sweets to children as present or reward. Children as young associative learners will later associate harmful foods with good events. This might overshadow
their thinking about the true value of a healthy and nutritious diet. As much as possible, practice a healthy lifestyle with the young ones.
It is important to be careful about how much you eat.
Know the intended number of servings of packed foods before eating. Some packed
noodles can be small in packages but they sometimes prepared for two or more persons. Others fail to realize this and eat the whole pack of noodles making their calories and food intake double.
25-Eat more fish .
Whitefish is low in fat and oily fish has high omega 3- fatty acids. Fish oil or omega 3-fatty acids are unsaturated oil that cannot be found in other food sources. It will help the body combat cholesterol and will help maintain a healthy heart function.
26-Omega 3-fatty acid
It is beneficial in getting rid of cholesterol but for those who do not like to eat oily fish can substitute Flaxseeds instead. It is composed of Omega 3 fatty an acid which is available in different nutrition store. You can take this once a week as your food supplement.
27-Be careful of what you buy in the grocery store
an attractive food package and expensive price do not necessarily mean that it is healthy. Famous product endorsers can also be very convincing but you should not believe everything you see and hear from them. It is best that you have your own knowledge of what is good for you.
28-The most important thing to know about allergy is the allergen.
Allergens are substances that trigger allergy which can be in the form of dust, pet’s hair, scents, pollen, and smoke. Trace the pattern of your allergy. Sneezing after cleaning your house might mean that your allergens
29- Do an elimination dieting if you suspect that you are allergic to foods.
Do this gradually by eliminating each food you usually eat for a period of 2 to 4 weeks to see changes. The process will be repeated in an opposite manner by introducing again the eliminated food to see if allergic symptoms will be manifested.
30-The best way to deal with food allergy is to avoid its triggering factor.
Check food labels carefully for additives that can cause you allergic reactions. If you suspect that a specific additive can cause you the allergy, avoid those as much as you can. Consider fresh and unprocessed foods.
31-Monitor your food intake by keeping a diary.
List down all your activities including all the foods you eat. Take note of when your allergies begin to show. It may establish a connection between your allergic reactions and a particular food, or something like scents, soap, cosmetics, clothing that you wear or your pet’s fur.
32-Do not hesitate to ask the ingredients of the menu
when eating at restaurants, parties or when eating foods prepared by someone else. It is important to know this information for your own safety and precaution. Always bring with you antihistamines or anti-allergy drugs as prescribed by your doctor for emergency cases.
33-If possible, wear an ID bracelet that indicates your allergy.
This will help other people know what triggers your allergic reactions in cases of emergency. You may also consider telling your family members, officemates and friends about your allergies before going to a buffet. In this case, they can alert you of the food you should not take.
34-It is important to seek help from experts
such as allergist or immunologist for better diagnosis and treatment of your allergies. They
may perform several tests to identify the specific triggering factors. They will also provide you medical prescription suited for you.
35-It is best to check if you manifest signs and symptoms
of allergies in the widely known food allergens such as soy, milk, peanuts, seafood, and eggs. If it cause you itchiness, sneezing, swelling and hives; keep it away from your home and avoid these as much as possible.
36-As soon as you discover that you have a food allergy, you need to adjust
your meal plan as well as your nutritional intake. By getting rid of the triggering foods, you may need to supplement the nutrients lost. Diet modifications are necessary but still observe a well-balanced diet to maintain a healthy body without the food that triggers your allergy.
37-Sometimes the food allergens are your favorite foods which could be
more difficult for you to get rid of.
Try to condition your mind that foods and additives that can trigger your allergies are not edible. In this way, you can gradually avoid temptation of eating or tasting bits.
38-It is better not to eat any kind of nuts
even if you are aware of the specific type of nut you are allergic to. Determine carefully the content
of what you are buying because nuts are not only present in some food products but are also used as ingredients in shampoos, soaps, and lotions.
39-Stress, tension, and anxiety can also trigger allergies.
Try to determine the causes and deal with it by relaxation, meditation, reflection and
other kinds of coping techniques. Drink milk before sleeping at night it can greatly contribute to a good rest thus decreases your potential to be stressed out.
40-Always be ready because allergic reactions may occur anytime and
Imagine different situations in advance about having an allergy and how you can handle it if you are away from your home. This will help you prepare and think for your safety first than panic and not do anything at all.
41-If your children have food allergies, teach them not to accept any food
given by their friends, classmates or anyone without your confirmation.
Let them know what they are allergic to and the symptoms they will manifest in order for them to seek help from adults or their school clinic when it occurs.
42-Avoid all kinds of milk and dairy products if you have milk allergy.
Make sure to have alternative nutrition or substitute milk nutrients by eating calcium-rich foods and Vitamin D. Consider eating more spinach and broccoli or talk to a dietician to provide you with a more planned diet.
43-Supplement yourself with vitamin C.
Vitamin C functions as a natural anti-allergy. A recommended intake of 1000 mg of vitamin C taken two
times a day can be a natural treatment for the relief of your allergies and asthma. It should be taken from fresh citrus fruits not canned juice or processed foods.
44-Taking a bath before going to sleep at night is recommended for those
who have allergies with pollen.
It is difficult to avoid pollen but reducing your exposure can be attainable. Stay inside especially on hot, dry and
windy days. Always close your windows and doors with your air conditioner on. A carpeted floor is not recommended for those with dust allergies. It will trigger sneezing and itchiness continuously. Otherwise, purchase a vacuum cleaner to clean it more often. Bed covers should also be changed often to keep from setting in. Leaving your footwear outside your room is also a good idea to prevent more dust.
45-It is best not to share your bedroom with your pets especially if you
Place them in a separate room to avoid inhaling their hair and dead skin cells. Sometimes others who have a different type of allergy may develop allergic reaction to pets more often to those who share a bed with their pets.
47-Wear gloves and mask when dusting or cleaning your house
to prevent inhalation of dust. Keep your stuffed toys or place them in a sealed plastic wrap. Always wash floor rags to prevent the growth of molds. Make sure to vacuum or clean under your bed and always use a damp cloth to wipe the dust off.
48-For skin allergies such as contact dermatitis, you should know the
surface or texture that you are allergic to.
The most common causes of skin allergies are fake jewelry, leather-made materials, and metals. If
you are allergic to these, make sure that you will place a cloth or cover to prevent direct contact with your skin.
49-Wash skin surface with cool water and mild soap immediately
after you developed rashes and itchiness from a known chemical irritant. Don’t scratch to prevent wound and further infection. You may use calamine lotion to treat itchiness but not in the face area or near the eyes. If rashes will continuously develop, seek for medical help.
50-Have a daily workout or exercise –
Exercising and a daily workout will not only give you a healthy body but also help in purifying your body
and mind through the release of your aggressive endorphins and emotions. Through exercise, you can take in more oxygen allowing your body to pump blood faster.
Heart rate The heart rate is the number of heartbeats for a period of time, usually one minute. It varies base on many parameters such as :
Age Sexe Physical form Body shape The presence of a pathology The emotions, stress
physical activity, weather
Hormonal changes or fluctuations
Taking medication, etc.
The American Heart Association states the normal resting adult human heart rate is 60–100 bpm. Tachycardia is a fast heart rate, defined as above 100 bpm at rest. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate, defined as below 60 bpm at rest. During sleep, a slow heartbeat with rates around 40–50 bpm is common and is considered normal. When the heart is not beating in a regular pattern, this is referred to as an arrhythmia. Abnormalities of heart rate sometimes indicate disease
It is slightly higher in women than in men. The hearts of children beat faster: in the newborn, between 120 and 160 times per minute! On the contrary, in athletes, the heart rate can drop to very low levels, up to 40 bpm. When you exercise, the heart rate increases, especially as the effort is sustained. The muscles are better supplied with oxygen and nutrients. The heart rate, however, reaches a threshold that can not be exceeded, which corresponds to the maximum heart rate.
How to measure Heart rate
Place two fingers (the index finger and the middle finger) on an artery, at the wrist for example, or the neck. Count the number of beats thus felt for a minute precisely. To make sure is recommended to repeat the operation three or four times in a row and then average the results obtained.
Heart Rate Monitor
The heart rate monitor most of the time is used by professionals it is particularly useful for endurance athletes, in order to better dose their effort. In many cases, it may not be accessible to everyone
An electrocardiogram is used by the cardiologist Is a diagnostic tool that is routinely used to assess the electrical and muscular functions of the heart. While it is a relatively simple test to perform, the interpretation of the ECG tracing requires significant amounts of training.
Complications associated with a high heart rate
High blood pressure; insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle due to coronary heart disease (atherosclerosis) Valvular heart disease, Heart failure, cardiac muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) Tumors or infections; Other medical conditions, such as thyroid disease, certain lung diseases, electrolyte imbalance, or alcohol or drug abuse Emotional stress or the consumption of large amounts of alcoholic or caffeinated beverages.
Causes of a high heart rate
Lack of exercise, poor eating habits, smoking, alcohol, and drugs consumption Heart diseases and health issues ( illness)
Food for a good Heart Rate
Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and fish oil such as salmon, tuna, mackerel Lean meats, nuts such as almonds or walnuts Leafy Green vegetables, and most fruits Whole grains, Fiber and bean sprouts
How to naturally lower heart rate
Relaxing and trying to remain calm. Practice physical activity Take 30 to 45 minutes walk recommended in nature or far from the urban environment Take a warm shower or bath, stay in for long relaxation time Avoid stress, enjoy to relaxation music, stretching Practice Yoga or another form of meditation
Your heart is a precious gift, a unique body engine Take care of yourself and enjoy a long life.
Anxiety is considered as a psychological and physiological state, it is also a disagreeable emotion and considered as a Normal reaction to stressful situations.
when Anxiety it becomes very excessive become an Anxiety disorder
Although this is a normal reaction to stress, it can take the form of the pathological disease and the person who suffers for a long time can develop other mental health disorders such as depression, etc..
What are the symptoms of anxiety?
Common Psychological symptoms
Common physical symptoms
.Fatigue .Sleeping Troubles
.Headache .Irritability .Phobia( Feeling Fears for small or big things) .Panic Attacks .Heart palpitations ( fast heartbeats )
.Choking sensation .Excessive sweating; .Hot flashes or, on the contrary, chills .Muscle tension .High blood pressure .Chest Pain and tightness .Body tremors generalized to the whole body; .Nausea .Diarrhea .Numbness
What are Natural treatments of anxiety (disorders)
Meditation is a type of relaxation that has strong soothing and calming properties. Few minutes in a quiet place are enough to chase the anxieties.
There are several types of relaxation that will help you feel better and avoid stress. Some type of relaxation are professional others are general, classic practices such as :
Music and art therapy
Healthy eating habits will help you feel better and be in a good mood.
Rest is an ally of good health and has immediate positive effects on brain and body function
Sleep at least 8 hours (adults) Children need more hours depending on age.
Toddlers 1-2 years 11 to 14 hours
Preschoolers 3-5 years 10 to 13 hours
School-aged children 6-13 years 9 to 11 hours
Teenagers 14-17 years 8 to 10 hours
Avoid the consumption of alcohol and caffeine.
Surround yourself with positive relationships, privilege constructive conversations with friends, family members, colleagues regardless of your social background (Work, School, etc …)
Get involved in social activities, sports, leisure.
Avoid staying alone for too long ( avoid isolation).
Discover activities, a recreation that makes you feel good.
Be Involved in community activities and build a social network.
It is very necessary to ask the help of a mental health professional if the anxiety becomes much more excessive.
Support from family members is important for complete healing.
Often Evoking Mental health problems is synonymous with judgment, rejection, and condemnation, yet everyone can find themselves in a situation of anxiety disorder regardless of age, sex social status.
Let’s be kind, help those who suffer from it.
With a busy schedule and sometimes working late into the evening, building a healthy morning routine has been a challenge for me. In the past when I’ve developed a morning routine, I often felt I was sacrificing sleep. I’ve experimented with meditation, morning exercise, gratitude journals, intermittent fasting all with the goal of creating a healthy morning routine, in order to feel energetic and grounded for my day. Often, I found myself not being able to stick to the routines, since the time demands were too great. I ended up sprinkling in these activities when there was time, but never really sticking to one thing.
During my commute to work one day I was listening to the Podcast Works for Me – “How to Make Yourself a Morning Person” with the hopes of finding inspiration on how to build a healthy morning routine. The podcast discusses the outcomes of the podcast author challenging herself to a new morning routine, with the help of scientific research. The morning routine is called RISE-UP, a method developed by Alison Harveyof the Golden Bear Sleep and Mood Research Clinic. She is a professor of clinical psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. The real take away that I got from the author of the podcast – Francesca Levy, was how she got the feeling of time to herself. In the podcast, she described how having a young child and a busy work schedule left her feeling that she didn’t have any time to herself. This feeling having no time or time to yourself seems ubiquitous in our culture and can lead to frustration, anxiety, and burnout. Creating this morning routine is really about creating time for self-care (Smullens., 2015).
RISE UP METHOD
The RISE UP method aims to help those suffering from severe sleep inertia, also known as morning grogginess. Harvey describes sleep inertia as “the technical term for the normal and natural transitional state of lowered arousal and impaired performance following sleep.” Sleep inertia can last for a period of 5 to 20 minutes of grogginess, this includes the feeling of heavy eyes, body pain and a desire to go back to sleep. Harvey describes sleep inertia as a normal transition from sleep to being awake and recommends it’s best to get up and start moving. So that strong impulse to hit the snooze button is a natural impulse but snoozing doesn’t improve alertness or sense of being awake during the day (Kaplan et al., 2018). Part of this may be due to the fact that snoozing, starts another sleep cycle, but doesn’t allow you enough time to complete a sleep cycle, which typically lasts from 90 to 120 minutes (Natural Patterns of Sleep).
RISE UP Steps Refrain from snoozing – Avoid hitting the snooze button on your alarm Increase Activity – Perform physical activity within the first hour of waking Shower or wash your face and hands – Shower or wash your hands and face with cold water Expose yourself to sunlight – Expose yourself to natural sunlight first thing in the morning Upbeat music – Listen to upbeat music, since taste in music is so subjective, choose music that makes you feel energetic and upbeat Phone a friend – To make this easier, suggest this morning routine to a friend, who you can call to in the morning and they can offer you accountability and vice versa.
Research on the RISE UP method
Refrain from snoozing – Pressing snooze extends sleep inertia/grogginess by delaying physical activity and the physical stimulation that comes with physical activity. Snoozing also affects the sleep-wake cycle, which increases sleepiness (Kaplan et al., 2018).
The sleep-wake cycle or the circadian rhythm is a daily pattern that signals our body when it’s time to sleep and when it’s time to be awake. For most people, the sleep cycle is seven to nine hours and our time awake is 15 to 17 hours (Natural Patterns of Sleep).
These cycles are controlled by a set of hormones, one of them being adenosine. Adenosine is nucleoside, a chemical that our bodies naturally produce, which is important in energy transference and is also a neuromodulator. Adenosine begins to be released and accumulates once awake, the levels continue to accumulate throughout the day, when it binds to specific receptor sites, it causes an inhibitory type action, leading to drowsiness. Which is why the longer you stay awake the sleepier you become. Caffeine and adenosine belong to the same chemical group called xanthines, caffeine can readily bind to the adenosine receptor in the brain. When caffeine binds to the adenosine receptor in neurons of the brain, there is no effect on the receptor, but it does block adenosine from binding. Which is why
caffeine promotes wakefulness, but only temporarily. Once the caffeine is cleared from the body, the adenosine is still there and the feeling of sleepiness will likely return (Urry et al., 2014).
Increase activity for the first hour – Studies has shown that exercising at night can decrease the feeling of sleepiness, and may cause difficulty falling asleep as well as sleep quality. Exercise increases your core temperature, releases adrenaline and increases your heart rate, which promotes wakefulness (Kaplan et al., 2018).
Shower or wash your face and hands with cold water – Cold water applied to the skin causes vasoconstriction, which is the constriction of blood vessels. Cold water causes reduced blood flow in the skin and studies have found that vasoconstriction in the hands and face reduces subjective sleepiness (Krauchi et al., 2006)
Exposure to sunlight – Morning bright light turns off melatonin production and promotes an increase in cortisol levels. Light exposure upon waking can reduce morning grogginess and reset the circadian rhythm (Kaplan et al, 2018).
Upbeat Music – Studies have shown that upbeat music can decrease subjective sleepiness (Kaplan et al, 2018).
Phone a Friend – Greater social contact has been found to reduce subjective sleepiness. A study of flight crews found that when crew members took short breaks that involved socializing, this could mask their sleepiness (Neri et al . 2002).
Practical Tips and My Experience with the RISE UP Method
When living in the pacific northwest, relying on sunshine can be unpredictable, especially in the winter months. One way to ensure that you have exposure to light in the morning is by using a sunrise-simulating alarm clock. I’ve been using the Philips HF3520 Wake-up Alarm Clock. This alarm wakes you up by simulating a sunrise, where the light gradually gets brighter, and if you aren’t awake yet, the sound of soft chirping birds begins. In the beginning, I mainly woke up to the sound of chirping birds but eventually began to wake up before the wake-up time I had set.
Rather than a shower right away, I woke up and washed my face with cold water, then went out for a run with my dog, followed by some stretching. This allowed me to get natural light exposure and exercise within an hour of waking. I really enjoy the quiet in the morning, it almost feels as though you have that little part of the world to yourself. I live by the Fraser River and I noticed that the birds are calm, some still sleeping, the river is calm, almost still and it’s so quiet that the clanging of the tags on my dogs’ collar seam
ed to be the loudest noise on the walkway.
I opted to not play upbeat music in the morning. Personally, I found the upbeat music too stimulating in the morning, I prefer to take that time in the morning as more of a meditation on the natural world, where I listen to wildlife, the river and the rustling of the wind. The last, step is phoning a friend, honestly, I did not do this step. Mainly since who wants to be called at 5:30 am? I did make sure to talk to my partner in the morning, but I didn’t find that conversation made me feel more or less sleepy.
What were my personal results of taking 4 out the 6 steps of RISE-UP? The first thing I noticed is how much I enjoyed that time in the morning that felt like my own, previously it felt like as soon as I woke up, I was on the clock so to speak – making breakfast, putting lunch together, feeding the dog and cat breakfast, etc. Now it feels like I have 30 minutes plus, that are mine, where the world is still and quiet. I also noticed that I had more energy in the morning, so I found myself more productive earlier in the day, although I did find my energy fading at around 4 pm, so those days that I work late into the evening, I found a little challenging. I also found myself sleeping better since I was quite tired and ready to sleep earlier at night.
My dog also benefited from this morning routine, he was more attentive during our walk/run, he also had a calmer demeanor in the evening, rather than the usual boisterousness right after his dinner.
This routine is easy to get in the habit of and you can make it your own by adapting the exercise activity. You can do yoga on the balcony, go for a run, do tai chi, whatever you enjoy.
The other nice part is that it can be as little or as much time as you need, as long as you cover the main steps.
I encourage you to give it a try, throw some cold water on your face, go outside, get some sunshine, get some exercise and set yourself up for an amazing day!
“Natural Patterns of Sleep.” Healthy Sleep, healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/science/what/sleep-patterns-rem-nrem.
D.F. Neri, R.L. Oyung, L.M. Colletti, M.M. Mallis, P.Y.Tam, D.F. Dinges “Controlled breaks as a fatigue countermeasure on the flight deck Aviation Space & Environmental Medicine, 73 (2002), pp. 654-664
Smullens, SaraKay. Burnout and Self-care in Social Work: a Guidebook for Students and Those in Mental Health and Related Professions. National Association of Social Workers, 2015.
Kaplan, Katherine A., et al. “Rise and shine: A treatment experiment testing a morning routine to decrease subjective sleep inertia in insomnia and bipolar disorder.” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 111, 2018, pp. 106-112.
Urry, Emily, and Hans-Peter Landolt. “Adenosine, Caffeine, and Performance: From Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep to Sleep Pharmacogenetics.” Sleep, Neuronal Plasticity, and Brain Function, 2014, pp. 331-366.