Types of Cancer, Main causes, People who are at risk and Medical Advice for Prevention
Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of defected body cells. These abnormal cells combine to form benign and malignant tumors. Approximately more than two hundred types of cancer originate from different parts of the body. Cancer cells can invade the normal body tissues, which results in the spread of disorder. Benign tumors do not travel to the distant site of the body, but the malignant tumor can spread to other body organs.
In a healthy body, the damaged cells may repair or die by different physiological mechanisms. But in the cancerous state, these cells do not die but keep on dividing to produce more abnormal cells. The division rate of these abnormal cells is much faster than the normal cell division. Due to this abnormal division, a mass of cancer cells develops.
Mostly the abnormal cells in early-stage invade the surrounding structure. With increased severity, they start to break down from the primary mass and travel to distant sites via lymphatics or blood system. The broken cells lodge in the other organs and start to grow there. This process of traveling and growing of cancer cells to the other body parts is known as metastasis.[i]
Causes and Risk Factors of Cancer:
Any factor or stimulus that disturbs normal body development and affects cellular functions can cause cancer. Several cancer causes and risk factors are still unknown. Some cancers are known to develop from lifestyle abnormalities, genetic makeup, and environmental triggers.
Causation of cancer is more often due to a combination of various factors. Initiating factor of cancer is difficult to understand, but researchers have provided the likely causes of cancer that can contribute to initiating cancer development.
Various microorganisms can cause cancer, such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Schistosoma spp, Helicobacter pylori, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Toxic or chemical exposure in people working in different industries can be a major cause of cancer. The most common industrial carcinogens include asbestos, cadmium, nickel, benzidine, aflatoxins. Tobacco and cigarette smoking are also a significant cause of cancer. Cigarette smoke contains approximately 60 carcinogenic toxins and chemicals.
Exposure to ionizing radiation sources, such as radon, ultraviolet rays from the sun, uranium, X-ray emitting elements, alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays.
Genetics: Several specific genes are responsible for cancer causation. These include ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and colorectal cancer, skin cancer, and gastric cancer.[ii]
New trials and studies have suggested some other risks that can increase cancer causation. International Agency for Research on Cancer has suggested that red meats like pork, lamb, and beef can increase the risk of cancer along with processed meats such as preserved, salted, smoked, and cured meat. Barbecued meat taken in larger quantities can cause cancer because of the formation of carcinogenic compounds at higher temperatures.
It is significant to point out that everybody is at risk of cancer because we are exposed to cancer-causing agents such as sunlight, X-rays, and secondary cigarette smoke throughout our lifetime. Most people do not develop cancer. Others may have a genetic makeup that supports cancer development, but they are not affected by the disease during the whole life. Several factors are responsible such as higher the exposure results in increased cancer causation. Maybe most people are not exposed to the cancer-causing agent as much as required for the occurrence of cancer.
Regarding genetics, there may be a lack of defective genetic expressions to cause cancer. Some people have a strong and healthy immune system that does not allow cancer cells to survive and divide. Besides these conditions, there is strong evidence that certain dietary and lifestyle measures in combination with healthy immunity can significantly decrease the chances of cancer. So, it is difficult to assign any particular factor to be a cause of cancer. Other risk factors that have a shred of minor evidence to be the cause of cancer include obesity, hormonal imbalance, no exercise, low energy radiations emitting from cell phones, pickled vegetables, and caffeine.[iii]
Types of Cancer
The main types of cancer, depending upon the nature of tissue from which they originate, are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, and lymphoma.
It is the most common type of cancer. It originates from the skin and epithelial lining of different organs such as the kidney and liver. Carcinomas consist of abnormal cells that divide uncontrolled and may spread to other body parts or not. Cancer that remains in the organ from which it originates is called carcinoma in situ. Other more aggressive forms are called invasive carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
Different types of carcinomas can occur in various body parts such as Basal cell carcinoma (the most common type of skin cancer that develops in basal cell layer or lower epidermis), Squamous cell carcinoma (also a type of skin cancer that mostly occurs in the epidermis), Renal cell carcinoma (develops in small tubules of the kidney), Ductal carcinoma in situ (breast cancer confined to the lining of ducts), and Invasive ductal carcinoma (breast cancer that evades the breast tissue after leaving the milk ducts).1
It is another form of cancer that mostly develops in soft tissues and bones. Soft tissue sarcoma can occur in different body parts such as lymph or blood vessels (Angiosarcoma), neuromuscular cells of the gastrointestinal tract (Gastrointestinal stromal tumor), fat tissue present at the back of abdomen or knee and in the thigh (Liposarcoma), smooth muscles of the abdomen (Leiomyosarcoma), stem cells of joints (Synovial sarcoma),
the outer lining of nerves (Neurofibrosarcoma), skeletal muscle (Rhabdomyosarcoma), connective tissue (Fibrosarcomas and Myxofibrosarcoma). Less common soft tissue sarcomas include Mesenchymomas, Vascular sarcoma, Schwannoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma. Bone sarcomas include Osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, and Fibrosarcoma.[iv][v]
It is a type of skin cancer that originates from the melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells. It typically arises in the skin but also occurs in the intestines, eye, and mouth. It is a very aggressive tumor and destroys the nearby tissue. It has given the name malignant melanoma because of high metastatic potential. It has four main types.
First is the Superficial spreading melanoma that is the most common type and accounts for 70% of total malignant melanomas. It tends to grow radially outward and vertically downward to spread across the skin. It usually develops at limbs and trunk. The second type is nodular melanoma, which grows downward into the skin. It may be polypoid or pedunculated shaped. It typically arises at the face, back, and chest.
The third type is Lentigo malignant melanoma, which occurs in old age. It starts with less aggressive in situ tumor in the outer layer of skin and then grows downward into the skin. It typically develops on ears, arms, and face. The fourth type is the rarest, named as Acral lentiginous melanoma, and arises under the nails and at the sole of the feet.[vi]
It is a blood cancer that affects lymphocytes. Due to affected lymphocytes, the whole lymphatic system gets involved that includes the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect all areas and organs throughout the body. It has two types Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.[vii]
Most common types of cancer affecting different organs include:
People who are at Increased Risk of Cancer:
Age more than 55 years
Family history of cancer or immunodeficient diseases
Tobacco addicts especially, cigarette smokers
People more prone to viral infections, such as Ebstein-bar virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV)
People related to occupations like asbestos industries, cement industry, glass industry, etc.
Those are working in X-ray laboratories or any other occupation in which they are exposed to radiation, such as atomic and hydrogen bomb industries.
Don’t use tobacco products. Using tobacco products increases the risk of cancers, such as lung, throat, mouth, bladder, pancreas, larynx, kidney, and cervix. Tobacco chewing causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Passive smoking also makes the person more prone to cancer. Avoiding smoking and other tobacco products are very vital for cancer prevention.
Various lifestyle changes can help with cancer prevention. Most important includes eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains. Obesity is another risk factor for cancer, so eating less calorie foods, including fat and refined sugars. Avoid alcohol and processed red meats.
Maintaining a healthy weight and regular exercise can prevent against prostate, lung, renal, and breast cancers. Increased physical activity helps in maintaining weight and lower the risk of cancer.[ix]
Avoid excessive sunlight. This can be done by avoiding going outside during midday sun when sun rays are strongest. Try wearing loose-fitting, bright or dark, and tightly woven dresses. Use sunglasses and try to remain in the shade. Tanning sunlamps and beds are more damaging than sunlight.
Protection from certain viruses can also help against cancer. So, get vaccinated for viruses, especially Hepatitis B and Human papillomavirus (HPV). Hepatitis B is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver cancers. HPV is transmitted sexually and can cause endometrial, cervical, and genital cancers.
Avoid behavior that might increase the risk of cancer. These include avoiding the use of needles and using condoms during sex. Limiting the number of sexual partners helps to prevent HIV and HPV infections that can decrease the risk of cancer.[x]
1. Wei, E., Wolin, K., & Colditz, G. (2010).Time Course of Risk Factors in Cancer Etiology and Progression. Journal Of Clinical Oncology, 28(26), 4052-4057. doi: 10.1200/jco.2009.26.9324
2.Ames, B., & Gold, L. (1997).The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: Gaining Perspective. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105, 865. doi: 10.2307/3433296
3. Danaei, G., Vander Hoorn, S., Lopez, A., Murray, C., & Ezzati, M. (2005). Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioral and environmental risk factors. The Lancet, 366(9499), 1784-1793. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67725-2
4. M Choong, P., & Vodanovich, D. (2018).Soft-tissue sarcomas. Indian Journal Of Orthopaedics, 52(1), 35. doi: 10.4103/ortho.ijortho_220_17
5. Potter, J., Jones, K., & Barrott, J. (2018).Sarcoma–The standard-bearer in cancer discovery. Critical Reviews In Oncology/Hematology, 126, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.03.007
6. Lipsker, D. (2006).Growth Rate, Early Detection, and Prevention of Melanoma. Archives Of Dermatology, 142(12). doi: 10.1001/archderm.142.12.1638
7. Shanbhag, S., & Ambinder, R. (2017). Hodgkin lymphoma: A review and update on recent progress. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 68(2), 116-132. doi: 10.3322/caac.21438
8.Stein, C., & Colditz, G. (2004). Modifiable risk factors for cancer. British Journal Of Cancer, 90(2), 299-303. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601509
9.White, M., Peipins, L., Watson, M., Trivers, K., Holman, D., & Rodriguez, J. (2013). Cancer Prevention for the Next Generation. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 52(5), S1-S7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.02.016
10. Osborne, M., Boyle, P., & Lipkin, M. (1997).Cancer prevention. The Lancet, 349, S27-S30. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(97)90018-0
If you know who is going to read the resume you are going to submit, then you would be able to decide on the kind of content you want to establish on it. For example, if the resume would go through a Human Resource person, then you simply have to indicate the necessary information, which would make you qualify for the job. However, if it is going directly to the manager or employer, then you will have to be more specific.
Make your resume easy for a person to read.
You have to keep in mind that in most cases, your resume is just one of the many resumes submitted on a daily basis to the company you want to work for. Thus, the person reading it may simply get a quick glimpse of your resume to make a decision. If it is not easy to read, then it may get tossed out by the person easily.
Include the details that the reader wants to hear from you.
It is very important that you become more familiar with the requirements of the company when it comes to hiring you. This is because it can help you determine the more important details that you can include in your resume. For example, if you are applying for a managerial position, then you should focus on indicating related experiences, which can help you do the job well.
Make your resume short and direct to the point.
Since there is a huge possibility that you are not the only applicant of the position you want, then you should make your resume short and direct to the point. When a manager reads your resume, it is safe to assume that he does not have all day to do that. Thus, he may not have too much patience in looking for the information he wants from your resume.
Determine the very purpose of the resume.
Although you are making the resume to get the job you want, it is actually just the first step that you are going to take for it. Thus, the very purpose of the resume is to get your potential employer to contact you for an interview. Once that happens, you can then focus on your interview performance to land on the job you have been dreaming of.
Provide examples to back up your strengths and qualities.
Many people create resumes and list down their strengths and qualities like being creative, problem solver, hardworking, and such. However, this actually does not prove anything, for anyone can create a long list of it. What you can do to stand out is to connect them with real experiences you have in your work or life in general, to illustrate that you do have such qualities.
Determine your priorities.
In coming up with your resume, you have to determine what you really want, so as to make something that is really effective. You need to determine whether you want a job for career advancement or simply to earn money from it. By doing that, you would eventually see the steps that you need to take in order to reach your goals.
Take some time.
Take your time in coming up with your resume for the job that you want to apply for. Make up a rough draft of it, perhaps in a form of a word document, before finalizing it. While checking your draft, you should check out not just its content, but also how you have formatted it, since it is also important when it comes to considering the reader’s experience in checking it out.
Do your research.
If it is going to be your first time to create your resume, then you should do your research about it. There are lots of books as well as websites, which can provide you with resume samples. By checking them out, you would be able to have something, which you can base your resume on.
Double-check the information.
Before finalizing your resume, you should thoroughly check its content, so that you can ensure that it is free from errors. You need to see to it that the dates, the numbers, and all the other data it contains is correct. When a resume is free from errors, you are increasing your chances of getting the job that you want.
Make up your mind about the job.
Prior to submitting your resume, you should properly assess first, if you really want the job that you are applying for. Although you may qualify for it, and you are confident that you are going to get it, it is still best if you land on a job that you really wanted in the first place. This would ensure that you would have the necessary drive to excel on the job and be involved with it for a long time.
Applying for many jobs.
Lots of people today send out resumes to almost every hiring company that they come across with. They do it with the notion that the more resumes they submit, the more chances they have in landing on a job. Although it is true, it may also increase your chances of landing on a job, which you really do not like in the first place.
What to do in responding to job postings.
Whether you have found the job postings through the internet or locally, it is very important that you read thoroughly to obtain the necessary details. Check out where the
company is located, the date that they would start to receive resumes, and such. If you feel that there are some details that you need that are not indicated, then make use of their contact information and call them.
Learn more about the position.
Before coming up with your resume, you should learn more about the position that you are applying for. When you do that, you would be able to determine, whether you are really qualified for it or not. Aside from that, you should also try to check if you do have past experiences, which can help you in the job, should you get hired for it.
Know your potential employer.
Do your research about the company that you want to work for. When you gather information about your potential employer, don’t forget to check out its mission and vision statements, and understand them properly. Aside from that, you should also try to learn more about the kind of working environment the company is trying to develop.
If you want a long term job.
If you are applying for a job position that you want to get involved with for a long period of time, then you should carefully select your potential employer, prior to coming up with your resume. Choose an employer that has been in business for quite some time, so that you are assured about its stability. Aside from that, don’t forget to indicate in your resume qualities of an employee that is committed enough for long term involvement.
Coming up with your main resume heading.
There are lots of options that you have when it comes to your main resume headings. You can choose to have headings that show your qualifications, work experiences, skills, languages, and such. Some people also start with their objective; however, this one may be omitted, since it is quite obvious that the objective of your resume is to get the job or to get interviewed.
Seek help from a friend.
If you are having a hard time in trying to come up with a resume format that you can start with, don’t forget that you can always ask your friend about it. Approach a friend who has successfully landed on the job he wanted, and check out his resume. Just take note of the format, and start from there.
Adding more headings.
When you have other specific headings that you want to add on your resume, you should consider whether your potential employer is interested in it or not. For example, if the company you are going to apply a job for is involved with computers, then adding Computer Skills heading could be a good idea.
Make use of quality paper.
One of the first things that employers would notice about the resume is the quality of paper that is used. There is no need to go with the more expensive ones. It is best to focus on quality, and veer away from papers, which may have certain scents. Focus on papers that are quite sturdy, so that the reader won’t have difficulties in reading it.
Uncover unstated needs.
In job postings, you can be assured that the company that made it has unstated needs, and they may base hiring their employees to that. Therefore, you should try to do more research about it, so that you can uncover their unstated needs. If you are able to do that, then you can improve your chances in getting the job that you want.
Submit your resume to an online job portal.
There are lots of potential employers today, which depend on certain job portals to find people to hire. Thus, it is best if you submit your resume to these job portals. This way, aside from hunting for the job that you want, you can also let potential employers find you.
Using keywords for your resume.
In submitting your resume to online job websites, it is best if you make use of certain keywords, so as to increase the chances of companies in finding it. Many companies already make use of online databases to find potential employees. By making your resume easier to find with the right keywords, you are also improving your potentials in getting the job you want.
Using the right titles.
Since people, who are tasked in selecting potential candidates for the jobs they posted, also are pressed for time, then in most cases, they only take about a few seconds in checking out your resume. Thus, you should focus on titles or headings, which can grab their interest. Provide it with the right description, so that employers would become more familiar with your background by simply checking on them.
Proofreading your resume.
The importance of proofreading your resume cannot be overemphasized. Just a small error on it can already end your chances of getting the job. Thus, it is best if you proofread your resume at least twice before submitting it. If you have a resume that is short and precise, then proofreading it would not take you too much time.
How to shorten your resume.
Since most employers do not have the time nor the patience to read through long paragraphs, what you can do is to make use of bullet points in your resume. Using
bullet points and numbering can actually help you in summarizing all the things that you want your potential employer to know about you. With that, it makes reading it a more pleasant experience for your potential employer.
Establishing the right resume order.
When it comes to having the right order for your resume, you should come up with the most important information first. For example, if you deem that your work experience is the one that is most important for your employer, then you should put it at the topmost portion. This should also apply in enumerating skills that you have gained through your experiences or trainings.
Determine your direction.
Indicating certain things in your resume, which can help your employer learn more about where you are going, could also improve your chances of landing on the job. This is because employers want to hire employees who have clear pictures of what direction they want to take in their lives. Thus, indicating your professional goals can be a wise decision, or at least make your resume in a way that it communicates it.
Since there are lots of fonts that you can choose from in writing your resume, it is best if you focus on certain guidelines about it. One of the most important things about writing a resume is to make it as clear as possible so that the reader won’t have difficulties in reading it. Thus, when it comes to the size of your font, you should focus on 11 or 12, while Arial and Times New Roman are good choices for the style.
Availability for the job interview.
In submitting your resume, it is best that you tell your potential employer about your availability for a job interview. Aside from that, you should also indicate that you can always provide references when needed. Since you have indicated them, you should also be prepared in receiving a call from them for an interview, as well as for your references.
In listing down your skills.
Simply enumerating your skills may not get the job done, as far as landing on the job you want is concerned. Thus, instead of simply enumerating them, you should also state how the company can benefit from them to catch their attention. Doing that would make your potential employers think about the things you have stated.
Always focus on the positive.
Avoid any kind of information, which can promote negativity, whether in your experiences or about yourself, when you write your resume. This is also applicable
when it comes to being interviewed. If you are asked about your previous employer, you should not mention any kind of negativity about them.
Gone are the days when attaching a picture in a resume is of prime importance. This is because most employers are not interested in how you look, unless you are applying for an acting or modeling position, which focuses more on the physical traits of individuals. Most employers these days are more interested in your skills and experiences, and how you present the information to them through your resume.
Although listing responsibilities under your experiences is one of the things that lots of people are doing today, you can actually make it better, by listing achievements instead. Most employers are already quite familiar when it comes to the functions of a certain position. Thus, listing down the responsibilities may not attract their attention, as much as your achievements would.
Tailor suit your resume.
Many people these days follow a practice where they create a generic form of a resume and send it out to as many potential employers as they can. Although this kind of practice can save you time, it may bring down your chances of landing on an interview. The best way is to tailor-fit your resume to each company that you send it to so that you would be able to increase your potentials of getting a call for an interview.
If you are going to list down your achievements in your resume, as much as possible, utilize numbers in illustrating them. For example, indicating a certain percentage of how much you helped the company in terms of its revenue generated, would illustrate it better for them. By doing that, it would give them an idea that you are indicating a fact, and not just any kind of claim.
Be more specific.
When you come up with a resume, where you are going to connect your skills to your experiences, you should become more specific about it. For example, don’t just state that you have gone the extra mile in helping a customer. Instead, you should indicate the steps that you took in helping him.
Identify the problems of your potential employer.
Identifying the problems of the company you want to work for can help you in landing on the job you want. What you can do about this is to check out the kind of industry the company belongs to. For example, if one of the issues the company is currently facing
is about its marketing efforts, then you would know what skills you have, which you can indicate in your resume.
Listing down your work experiences.
There is no need to list down all your past work experiences, especially if you are not very proud about some of them. Focus more on listing down your work experiences, which are relevant to the kind of position that you are applying for. Aside from that, avoid those experiences you have, which only lasted for a couple of months.
Including your age in your resume.
In most countries around the world, age discrimination is actually considered illegal. However, many companies still consider age as a factor in hiring their employers. In relation to that, it is wise not to include your age in your resume. However, only indicate it, if the company would require you to.
Your resume is actually all about selling yourself to your potential employer so that he would be convinced of giving you a shot for an interview. Thus, you should focus on this kind of mindset in writing your resume. However, you should also avoid overdoing it, since it can also bring down your chances of getting hired.
Go for it.
Even if you still do not have any kind of real working experience, you should not hesitate in applying for the job you want, as long as you truly believe that you are qualified for it. Just indicate your volunteer work, summer jobs, or training, especially if they are relevant to the job that you want.
Avoid gender confusion.
There are certain names of people, which can be used for both males and females. Thus, if you have such a gender-neutral name, then you should do something to avoid your potential employer to experience confusion regarding your gender. Include a prefix in your name, so that your employer would know if you are a male or a female.
Don’t lie on your resume.
Although people are pretty much aware of the consequences of it, many still lie in their resumes, and even on their job interviews. You have to keep in mind that employers today, especially those who belong to the HR department, have ways of checking out your background. Thus, if they found out about your lie, then chances are, you won’t be able to get it. Aside from that, lying on your resume can also cost you your reputation for good.
Excluding irrelevant information.
Many companies these days do not pay attention to a potential employee’s religion, political affiliation, and such. Thus, such information can be considered as irrelevant, since they just consume more space in your resume, without helping you landing on the job. Therefore, it is best to skip these facts, so that you won’t be wasting your time as well as your potential employer‘s.
Considerations to have.
In writing your resume, you should have a number of things you need to consider while doing it. Aside from considering the kind of job you want, you should also consider the kind of salary you are aiming for, as well as the job’s level of responsibility. Doing that would help you come up with a resume that will provide an image that would match the things you are aiming for.
Reading job ads.
When you check out the job advertisement that the company you want to work for has posted, it would actually provide you with lots of helpful information. Aside from taking note of the qualifications they want, you can also check out what kind of business they are involved with. By knowing that, you would be able to see what they have in common with other companies, and determine the kind of employee they are searching for.
Pages in your resume.
Lots of people debate about the length of their resume. Some say longer is better, while others say to go with the shorter ones. What you should take note though is that employers usually do not have time for lengthy resumes and application letters. Thus, it is best to make it as short as possible, such as just a single page or two, so that you can get the interview you are waiting for.
Reviewing your resume.
It is always best to review your resume for more than just once. However, it is better to have someone take a look at it, before you submit it to the company you want to work for. There are times when you would not be able to see your own mistakes, which is why an impartial friend would be able to help you out with it. Just keep in mind though that no matter what they suggest, it is still you who will make the final decision for it.
Use your best printer.
If you have a number of printers in your house, then you should use the best one for it. If you have a laser printer, then you should know that it is the best kind of printer for resumes. Print out your resume on a plain white paper, which is made in good quality, and avoid most fancy stuffs.
Designing your resume.
Your resume’s design should be as simple as possible. There are actually lots of sample of resumes you can find on the web these days, in which you can base your design on. If you want to start on it from scratch though, you should keep in mind that you need to avoid fonts that are too small. Aside from that, you should also become more consistent throughout its content.
Coloring your resume.
When it comes to the color of the text in your resume, you should make use of black for it. This is because using that color, combined with a plain white paper would make the resume appear as professional as possible. Aside from that, you need to consider that many employers will photocopy your resume, especially if they are scheduling you for an interview.
Become more selective.
If you have just done a rough draft of your resume, and you found out that it is too lengthy, being selective can actually help in cutting its length down. Being selective means that you should only indicate information on your resume that is relevant or has a purpose. Thus, when you scan through it again, and found sentences that do not have any purposes, then you should take them out.
When you read your resume, you may immediately make assumptions that it is clear and very understandable. However, you have to make sure that it is understandable not just for you, but also to the reader. Thus, you should recheck it over and over again, and have someone else take a look at it as well.
Your last resort.
If you have been trying over and over again in writing up a decent resume, and you still end up unsatisfied of the results, then you should come up with another solution for it. As your last resort, you can always have someone create it for you, such as your friend or a professional writer. However, make sure to properly explain what kind of resume you want, so that you would have a resume that you have envisioned it to be.
Describing your previous work experience.
When it comes to providing the details of your past work experience, you can actually indicate the responsibilities that you had. However, it is also best that the person reading your resume be able to understand what kind of business your previous employer was involved with. To address that, you can actually indicate the web address of your past employer’s website, so that your potential employer can check it out himself.
Supporting your propositions.
If you have certain propositions for the company that you want to work for, it is best that you provide it with adequate support. Aside from that, you should also be more specific in supporting it. For example, if you aim for improvement in employee productivity, then you should provide the steps in achieving it.
Some of your past jobs may be more relevant than the others.
Some people mistakenly consume lots of space in their resumes for emphasizing on jobs, which are not relevant to the position they are applying for. Thus, it is best that prior to writing your past work experiences, you should jot down those that you want to focus on more.
Gather your thoughts.
Before you even start writing your resume, you should gather your thoughts about the information that you are going to provide in it. This would help you have the right mindset in coming up with a resume that you really want. Aside from that, it would also help in making your resume writing experience a smoother one.
Updating your resume.
It is always best to keep a digital copy of your resume on hand. With that, you would be able to update it anytime you want. Updating would mean adding more relevant content to your resume such new training experiences, academic programs, and such. By doing that, you are ensuring that you are not missing out in mentioning important details.
Mentioning people you worked for.
If you have the experience in reporting or working with top executives in the industry that you belong to, mentioning their names on your resume would not be a bad idea. Make sure though that it is fine with them, if your potential employer would try contact them for confirmation. Aside from mentioning them, you can also ask them to become your character references.
Come up with a resume that does not provide a negative impression.
If you have been around, when it comes to the types of jobs that you have been involved with, then you should only indicate those that are more important. Aside from that, you should not indicate those jobs you had before, which were short-termed. This is because employers want to hire people who are decided on the kind of work they want. Aside from that, they also long for people who want to get involved with them on a long term basis.
Avoid jargons as much as possible.
If you are a technical person, you need to keep in mind that when you submit your resume there is a big possibility that the manager that would view it is non-technical. Thus, it is best to avoid technical jargons in your resume as much as possible. This is
because, your potential employer may not want to spend extra time on your resume, by researching about the words that you have used in it.
Position the text in your resume as clear as possible.
Although it is a good idea to come up with a resume that is only a page length, you should also make sure that you don’t cram up too much text in it. Therefore, you should provide good spaces between the words and the lines in your resume. Doing this may make your single-paged resume to two pages, however, it would become more presentable, and less confusing.
When you had years of experience in a particular company.
If you have been with a particular company for quite some time already, and have been promoted for a number of instances, then you should list down all your positions in it. List down your roles and positions that you have attained in the company, which may have developed your skills further. Doing this can increase your chances in getting the job, especially if you are able to get your employer’s attention.
Online sample resume templates.
When you search through the internet, you may find lots of websites, which offer free resume samples that you can use as templates. However, you need to be careful in making use of them, since some might be designed for specific positions, which you may not be applying for. Aside from that, sticking with sample templates may also make your resume look more generic.
Your old work experiences.
If you have been working for 10 to 15 years already, then there is a big chance that you have already been promoted to different positions. Thus, it may no longer be necessary to list down your past working experiences, when you were still starting out. It is best to focus on the most current job experiences that you have, especially those that are relevant to the position that you want.
There is no need to make use of fancy designs when it comes to writing your resume. Cute little flowers may appeal to you, but it would not have the same appeal to your potential employers. Aside from that, it could even make your document less professional.
The most important parts of your resume.
Two of the most important parts of your resume would be your name and your contact details. Thus, your name should be the first thing that would appear on it from the top, to be followed by your contact details. Aside from that, if you have more than two pages in your resume, they should still appear on the other pages.
How to showcase your accomplishments properly.
Indicating your accomplishments on your resume may not be enough to impress your would-be employer. To properly present it, you have to start by stating an issue, or a problem that you were able to solve for them. After this, discuss the steps that you took, which solved the problem that made everyone happy.
Focusing on actions.
When you write your resume, it is best to use action words or verbs. By doing that you would sound more proactive. Although resumes are based on the past, you should also make it in a way that it would sound like it is aimed for the future, which should impress most employers.
If you want to become more specific on your achievements by stating certain numbers to illustrate it, it is best that you write the numbers down, instead of doing it by words. Writing numbers such as “$100,000” instead of using “one hundred thousand dollars” would create a better impact on your readers.
You educational attainment is also a very important piece of information that you want to include in your resume. However, stating the kind of degree that you have achieved may not be enough. It is best if you can supplement it with something, which can indicate that you have worked while studying, or have done other productive activities.
The associations you were involved in.
Some people think that including associations in the resume is not necessary. On the contrary, it is actually one of the important items to include, especially if the kind of company you are applying to encourages their employees to develop their people skills or teamwork.
When you indicate certain educational attainments, such as a degree you earned or more, you should be prepared in providing the necessary supporting documents for it. Although most employers may not ask for such documents at the initial stages of the hiring process, it is still better to get them prepared, since you might be required to submit them before starting your work.
Summarizing your qualifications.
Providing a section in your resume to summarize your qualifications can offer you the edge that you need over your competition. This is very possible, especially if you are able to do it properly. When you write down your summary of qualifications, you should
keep in mind that some employers may just choose to read it, instead of the entire document.
When to write your resume.
Writing your resume can be done with your laptop or your personal computer. However, it is best if you do it at night time, or very early in the morning. This is because these are the usual times when you won’t have to deal with too many disturbances. If you are using a laptop, do it inside the room, or somewhere peaceful, so that you can really put your mind into it.
Saving a copy of your resume.
Saving your resume on your desktop is a good idea since it would make it very convenient for you to update it. However, it is also better if you have a backup plan for it, just in case your computers get infected with a virus or something else. What you can actually do is to save your resume online, which you can do by simply attaching it to your email, and sending it to yourself.
Turning off the internet.
If you experience having your computer running slower than usual when you start writing down your resume, you should try turning off the internet first. Doing that can actually improve the speed of your computer. Aside from that, you should also turn off the other running programs, not just to improve the speed of your pc further, but also to get rid of distractions.
Rearranging your resume.
If you are not satisfied with the outcome of your resume, there are lots of things that you can do to remedy the situation. One of which would be to rearrange your resume. This may not change the content of your resume, but it can improve its overall effect, as well as its appearance.
Emphasizing your strengths.
When you want to emphasize on your strengths, such as indicating that you have “strong leadership skills” or “excellent attention to details”, you need to be cautious about it. This is because anybody can actually do that. However, to make sure that you make a good impression, then you should ensure that the rest of your resume would support what you indicated.
Using the objective section.
For lots of people, the objective section of the resume can be the most confusing part. What you need to take note though is that you have two choices when it comes to it. You can either omit it or include it in your resume. If you choose to include it, you should consider the objective of the company, in writing your own objective.
Show that you are interested in.
Some people think that one cannot express how interested he is of the position he is applying for on the resume. However, you can actually do it, by simply taking note of a few things. You simply need to become more specific; focus more on the needs of your future employer; and, show that you have done your research and you know what you are doing.
Although this tip is usually provided for interviews, being confident in writing down your resume could also help you a lot. This is because when you are confident, you won’t hesitate to include the necessary things, which can make you stand out from the rest. Aside from that, it would also help you attain the right mindset in writing down your resume.
Let your new employer recognize the effort you put into your resume.
When your future employer recognizes the effort that you have invested in your resume, then your chances of being considered for the position would improve. To achieve this, one of the things that you can do is to tailor-fit your resume to the position that you are applying for. Although this may take some time, it is definitely worth it, especially if you can get the job.
Recalling some rules in writing.
Although these are the very basic rules in writing, many people still have the tendency to forget them, perhaps, it is due to the fact that resumes have different formats, compared to regular articles or letter. Some of the rules include a capital letter at the start of the sentence; titles do not need periods in the end; a comma should be followed by a space; and, many more.
Providing an email address.
Due to the fact that most companies are going digital these days, it is best if you can provide them with a contact email address. Your email address should be created in a professional manner. Aside from that, it should contain at least your first name or your initials, so that the people reading it can associate it to you.
Do not use the tools to highlight certain things excessively. A person reading your resume and sees too many words that are bolded, italicized, or underlined, can get irritated by it. Thus, you should minimize the use of them. Use them only to highlight very important information such as your name, address, and such.
Indicating your cell phone number.
Some people would advise you not to indicate your phone number in your resume. This is because receiving a call from a potential employer can catch you off guard. However, if you do want to include it, you need to be prepared in answering their calls at any time of the day. This is because they could be calling you for an interview.
Submitting the resume with a cover letter.
If you are going to submit your resume with a cover letter, there are certain things that you want to take note of. One of which is to properly match your resume with your cover letter layout. In other words, they should have the same font, text size, margins, and headings.
How to review your resume properly.
Proofreading your resume several times can actually help in identifying errors on it. However, if you really want to ensure that it is free from errors, what you can do is to do something else once you are done writing your resume. After a few hours, check it out again, since the break would provide you with a fresher mind to double-check it for errors.
Questions to ask after reviewing your resume.
Once you are done reviewing your resume for a number of times, there are certain questions that you want to ask yourself. Such questions should ask you whether your resume was compelling enough, professional-looking, clear and easy to read, free from grammatical errors, and such.
Forget other things first.
Prior to writing down your resume, you should forget other things first. This can actually help you out in coming up with a resume that is focused on more important things. Aside from that, it can also help you in writing a resume in a more positive tone.
Submitting your resume.
In these modern times, there are different ways of submitting your resume to a company. You can submit it by yourself, through email, or even through an online job portal. Before submitting it though, especially if you are going to do it through email, make sure that it is saved in the right kind of doc file so that your potential employer can open it.
Make up a plan.
Before sitting down on your desk to write your resume, you should come up with a plan first. By doing that, you would be able to identify your direction properly. Aside from that, you can also uncover your qualifications and achievements more effectively.
The elements of a resume that can land you an interview.
A resume that can make an employer contact you for an interview is something that is clean, appealing, and something that can soothe even tired eyes. Aside from that, it should also provide a dynamic summary of your qualifications, which target the requirements of the job you are applying for.
Do not use “I” in your resume.
Using I and other pronouns in the resume is not a good idea. This is because resumes are best written in the third person point of view. Doing that would make your resume not just more appealing, but also more professionalized. On top of that, it would also make it more believable.
Do not use too many articles.
Using too many articles in a resume is not a good idea, especially if you want to save on space. Articles would be words like “a”, “an”, or “the”, which can be considered as fillers. By minimizing the use of such words, you won’t just be saving space, but it can also make your potential employer focus more on the important things.
Using professional language.
When you apply for a job, your resume should sound as professional as possible. Doing it that way would improve your chances of getting hired for the job. To write in that manner, your resume style should send out a message that you are reliable, presentable, and of course, professional.
Whether you have found the job that you wanted to apply for or not, it is best if you constantly practice and perfect your resume writing skills. This can improve not just your skills in writing resumes, but it can also help you with other things as well. Have a friend check out your resume, and ask him for an honest assessment of it.
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Heart rate The heart rate is the number of heartbeats for a period of time, usually one minute. It varies base on many parameters such as :
Age Sexe Physical form Body shape The presence of a pathology The emotions, stress
physical activity, weather
Hormonal changes or fluctuations
Taking medication, etc.
The American Heart Association states the normal resting adult human heart rate is 60–100 bpm. Tachycardia is a fast heart rate, defined as above 100 bpm at rest. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate, defined as below 60 bpm at rest. During sleep, a slow heartbeat with rates around 40–50 bpm is common and is considered normal. When the heart is not beating in a regular pattern, this is referred to as an arrhythmia. Abnormalities of heart rate sometimes indicate disease
It is slightly higher in women than in men. The hearts of children beat faster: in the newborn, between 120 and 160 times per minute! On the contrary, in athletes, the heart rate can drop to very low levels, up to 40 bpm. When you exercise, the heart rate increases, especially as the effort is sustained. The muscles are better supplied with oxygen and nutrients. The heart rate, however, reaches a threshold that can not be exceeded, which corresponds to the maximum heart rate.
How to measure Heart rate
Place two fingers (the index finger and the middle finger) on an artery, at the wrist for example, or the neck. Count the number of beats thus felt for a minute precisely. To make sure is recommended to repeat the operation three or four times in a row and then average the results obtained.
Heart Rate Monitor
The heart rate monitor most of the time is used by professionals it is particularly useful for endurance athletes, in order to better dose their effort. In many cases, it may not be accessible to everyone
An electrocardiogram is used by the cardiologist Is a diagnostic tool that is routinely used to assess the electrical and muscular functions of the heart. While it is a relatively simple test to perform, the interpretation of the ECG tracing requires significant amounts of training.
Complications associated with a high heart rate
High blood pressure; insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle due to coronary heart disease (atherosclerosis) Valvular heart disease, Heart failure, cardiac muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) Tumors or infections; Other medical conditions, such as thyroid disease, certain lung diseases, electrolyte imbalance, or alcohol or drug abuse Emotional stress or the consumption of large amounts of alcoholic or caffeinated beverages.
Causes of a high heart rate
Lack of exercise, poor eating habits, smoking, alcohol, and drugs consumption Heart diseases and health issues ( illness)
Food for a good Heart Rate
Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and fish oil such as salmon, tuna, mackerel Lean meats, nuts such as almonds or walnuts Leafy Green vegetables, and most fruits Whole grains, Fiber and bean sprouts
How to naturally lower heart rate
Relaxing and trying to remain calm. Practice physical activity Take 30 to 45 minutes walk recommended in nature or far from the urban environment Take a warm shower or bath, stay in for long relaxation time Avoid stress, enjoy to relaxation music, stretching Practice Yoga or another form of meditation
Your heart is a precious gift, a unique body engine Take care of yourself and enjoy a long life.
Anxiety is considered as a psychological and physiological state, it is also a disagreeable emotion and considered as a Normal reaction to stressful situations.
when Anxiety it becomes very excessive become an Anxiety disorder
Although this is a normal reaction to stress, it can take the form of the pathological disease and the person who suffers for a long time can develop other mental health disorders such as depression, etc..
What are the symptoms of anxiety?
Common Psychological symptoms
Common physical symptoms
.Fatigue .Sleeping Troubles
.Headache .Irritability .Phobia( Feeling Fears for small or big things) .Panic Attacks .Heart palpitations ( fast heartbeats )
.Choking sensation .Excessive sweating; .Hot flashes or, on the contrary, chills .Muscle tension .High blood pressure .Chest Pain and tightness .Body tremors generalized to the whole body; .Nausea .Diarrhea .Numbness
What are Natural treatments of anxiety (disorders)
Meditation is a type of relaxation that has strong soothing and calming properties. Few minutes in a quiet place are enough to chase the anxieties.
There are several types of relaxation that will help you feel better and avoid stress. Some type of relaxation are professional others are general, classic practices such as :
Music and art therapy
Healthy eating habits will help you feel better and be in a good mood.
Rest is an ally of good health and has immediate positive effects on brain and body function
Sleep at least 8 hours (adults) Children need more hours depending on age.
Toddlers 1-2 years 11 to 14 hours
Preschoolers 3-5 years 10 to 13 hours
School-aged children 6-13 years 9 to 11 hours
Teenagers 14-17 years 8 to 10 hours
Avoid the consumption of alcohol and caffeine.
Surround yourself with positive relationships, privilege constructive conversations with friends, family members, colleagues regardless of your social background (Work, School, etc …)
Get involved in social activities, sports, leisure.
Avoid staying alone for too long ( avoid isolation).
Discover activities, a recreation that makes you feel good.
Be Involved in community activities and build a social network.
It is very necessary to ask the help of a mental health professional if the anxiety becomes much more excessive.
Support from family members is important for complete healing.
Often Evoking Mental health problems is synonymous with judgment, rejection, and condemnation, yet everyone can find themselves in a situation of anxiety disorder regardless of age, sex social status.
Let’s be kind, help those who suffer from it.