Types of Cancer, Main causes, People who are at risk and Medical Advice for Prevention
Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of defected body cells. These abnormal cells combine to form benign and malignant tumors. Approximately more than two hundred types of cancer originate from different parts of the body. Cancer cells can invade the normal body tissues, which results in the spread of disorder. Benign tumors do not travel to the distant site of the body, but the malignant tumor can spread to other body organs.
In a healthy body, the damaged cells may repair or die by different physiological mechanisms. But in the cancerous state, these cells do not die but keep on dividing to produce more abnormal cells. The division rate of these abnormal cells is much faster than the normal cell division. Due to this abnormal division, a mass of cancer cells develops.
Mostly the abnormal cells in early-stage invade the surrounding structure. With increased severity, they start to break down from the primary mass and travel to distant sites via lymphatics or blood system. The broken cells lodge in the other organs and start to grow there. This process of traveling and growing of cancer cells to the other body parts is known as metastasis.[i]
Causes and Risk Factors of Cancer:
Any factor or stimulus that disturbs normal body development and affects cellular functions can cause cancer. Several cancer causes and risk factors are still unknown. Some cancers are known to develop from lifestyle abnormalities, genetic makeup, and environmental triggers.
Causation of cancer is more often due to a combination of various factors. Initiating factor of cancer is difficult to understand, but researchers have provided the likely causes of cancer that can contribute to initiating cancer development.
Various microorganisms can cause cancer, such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Schistosoma spp, Helicobacter pylori, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Toxic or chemical exposure in people working in different industries can be a major cause of cancer. The most common industrial carcinogens include asbestos, cadmium, nickel, benzidine, aflatoxins. Tobacco and cigarette smoking are also a significant cause of cancer. Cigarette smoke contains approximately 60 carcinogenic toxins and chemicals.
Exposure to ionizing radiation sources, such as radon, ultraviolet rays from the sun, uranium, X-ray emitting elements, alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays.
Genetics: Several specific genes are responsible for cancer causation. These include ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and colorectal cancer, skin cancer, and gastric cancer.[ii]
New trials and studies have suggested some other risks that can increase cancer causation. International Agency for Research on Cancer has suggested that red meats like pork, lamb, and beef can increase the risk of cancer along with processed meats such as preserved, salted, smoked, and cured meat. Barbecued meat taken in larger quantities can cause cancer because of the formation of carcinogenic compounds at higher temperatures.
It is significant to point out that everybody is at risk of cancer because we are exposed to cancer-causing agents such as sunlight, X-rays, and secondary cigarette smoke throughout our lifetime. Most people do not develop cancer. Others may have a genetic makeup that supports cancer development, but they are not affected by the disease during the whole life. Several factors are responsible such as higher the exposure results in increased cancer causation. Maybe most people are not exposed to the cancer-causing agent as much as required for the occurrence of cancer.
Regarding genetics, there may be a lack of defective genetic expressions to cause cancer. Some people have a strong and healthy immune system that does not allow cancer cells to survive and divide. Besides these conditions, there is strong evidence that certain dietary and lifestyle measures in combination with healthy immunity can significantly decrease the chances of cancer. So, it is difficult to assign any particular factor to be a cause of cancer. Other risk factors that have a shred of minor evidence to be the cause of cancer include obesity, hormonal imbalance, no exercise, low energy radiations emitting from cell phones, pickled vegetables, and caffeine.[iii]
Types of Cancer
The main types of cancer, depending upon the nature of tissue from which they originate, are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, and lymphoma.
It is the most common type of cancer. It originates from the skin and epithelial lining of different organs such as the kidney and liver. Carcinomas consist of abnormal cells that divide uncontrolled and may spread to other body parts or not. Cancer that remains in the organ from which it originates is called carcinoma in situ. Other more aggressive forms are called invasive carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
Different types of carcinomas can occur in various body parts such as Basal cell carcinoma (the most common type of skin cancer that develops in basal cell layer or lower epidermis), Squamous cell carcinoma (also a type of skin cancer that mostly occurs in the epidermis), Renal cell carcinoma (develops in small tubules of the kidney), Ductal carcinoma in situ (breast cancer confined to the lining of ducts), and Invasive ductal carcinoma (breast cancer that evades the breast tissue after leaving the milk ducts).1
It is another form of cancer that mostly develops in soft tissues and bones. Soft tissue sarcoma can occur in different body parts such as lymph or blood vessels (Angiosarcoma), neuromuscular cells of the gastrointestinal tract (Gastrointestinal stromal tumor), fat tissue present at the back of abdomen or knee and in the thigh (Liposarcoma), smooth muscles of the abdomen (Leiomyosarcoma), stem cells of joints (Synovial sarcoma),
the outer lining of nerves (Neurofibrosarcoma), skeletal muscle (Rhabdomyosarcoma), connective tissue (Fibrosarcomas and Myxofibrosarcoma). Less common soft tissue sarcomas include Mesenchymomas, Vascular sarcoma, Schwannoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma. Bone sarcomas include Osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, and Fibrosarcoma.[iv][v]
It is a type of skin cancer that originates from the melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells. It typically arises in the skin but also occurs in the intestines, eye, and mouth. It is a very aggressive tumor and destroys the nearby tissue. It has given the name malignant melanoma because of high metastatic potential. It has four main types.
First is the Superficial spreading melanoma that is the most common type and accounts for 70% of total malignant melanomas. It tends to grow radially outward and vertically downward to spread across the skin. It usually develops at limbs and trunk. The second type is nodular melanoma, which grows downward into the skin. It may be polypoid or pedunculated shaped. It typically arises at the face, back, and chest.
The third type is Lentigo malignant melanoma, which occurs in old age. It starts with less aggressive in situ tumor in the outer layer of skin and then grows downward into the skin. It typically develops on ears, arms, and face. The fourth type is the rarest, named as Acral lentiginous melanoma, and arises under the nails and at the sole of the feet.[vi]
It is a blood cancer that affects lymphocytes. Due to affected lymphocytes, the whole lymphatic system gets involved that includes the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect all areas and organs throughout the body. It has two types Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.[vii]
Most common types of cancer affecting different organs include:
People who are at Increased Risk of Cancer:
Age more than 55 years
Family history of cancer or immunodeficient diseases
Tobacco addicts especially, cigarette smokers
People more prone to viral infections, such as Ebstein-bar virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV)
People related to occupations like asbestos industries, cement industry, glass industry, etc.
Those are working in X-ray laboratories or any other occupation in which they are exposed to radiation, such as atomic and hydrogen bomb industries.
Don’t use tobacco products. Using tobacco products increases the risk of cancers, such as lung, throat, mouth, bladder, pancreas, larynx, kidney, and cervix. Tobacco chewing causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Passive smoking also makes the person more prone to cancer. Avoiding smoking and other tobacco products are very vital for cancer prevention.
Various lifestyle changes can help with cancer prevention. Most important includes eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains. Obesity is another risk factor for cancer, so eating less calorie foods, including fat and refined sugars. Avoid alcohol and processed red meats.
Maintaining a healthy weight and regular exercise can prevent against prostate, lung, renal, and breast cancers. Increased physical activity helps in maintaining weight and lower the risk of cancer.[ix]
Avoid excessive sunlight. This can be done by avoiding going outside during midday sun when sun rays are strongest. Try wearing loose-fitting, bright or dark, and tightly woven dresses. Use sunglasses and try to remain in the shade. Tanning sunlamps and beds are more damaging than sunlight.
Protection from certain viruses can also help against cancer. So, get vaccinated for viruses, especially Hepatitis B and Human papillomavirus (HPV). Hepatitis B is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver cancers. HPV is transmitted sexually and can cause endometrial, cervical, and genital cancers.
Avoid behavior that might increase the risk of cancer. These include avoiding the use of needles and using condoms during sex. Limiting the number of sexual partners helps to prevent HIV and HPV infections that can decrease the risk of cancer.[x]
1. Wei, E., Wolin, K., & Colditz, G. (2010).Time Course of Risk Factors in Cancer Etiology and Progression. Journal Of Clinical Oncology, 28(26), 4052-4057. doi: 10.1200/jco.2009.26.9324
2.Ames, B., & Gold, L. (1997).The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: Gaining Perspective. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105, 865. doi: 10.2307/3433296
3. Danaei, G., Vander Hoorn, S., Lopez, A., Murray, C., & Ezzati, M. (2005). Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioral and environmental risk factors. The Lancet, 366(9499), 1784-1793. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67725-2
4. M Choong, P., & Vodanovich, D. (2018).Soft-tissue sarcomas. Indian Journal Of Orthopaedics, 52(1), 35. doi: 10.4103/ortho.ijortho_220_17
5. Potter, J., Jones, K., & Barrott, J. (2018).Sarcoma–The standard-bearer in cancer discovery. Critical Reviews In Oncology/Hematology, 126, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.03.007
6. Lipsker, D. (2006).Growth Rate, Early Detection, and Prevention of Melanoma. Archives Of Dermatology, 142(12). doi: 10.1001/archderm.142.12.1638
7. Shanbhag, S., & Ambinder, R. (2017). Hodgkin lymphoma: A review and update on recent progress. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 68(2), 116-132. doi: 10.3322/caac.21438
8.Stein, C., & Colditz, G. (2004). Modifiable risk factors for cancer. British Journal Of Cancer, 90(2), 299-303. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601509
9.White, M., Peipins, L., Watson, M., Trivers, K., Holman, D., & Rodriguez, J. (2013). Cancer Prevention for the Next Generation. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 52(5), S1-S7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.02.016
10. Osborne, M., Boyle, P., & Lipkin, M. (1997).Cancer prevention. The Lancet, 349, S27-S30. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(97)90018-0
It’s not that communication techniques are inherently bad. The better ones are like better diet tips (eat less, move more)
— Speak respectfully, listen attentively. But they’re unhelpful because people communicate primarily by emotional states, not words. Brain imaging shows that we make judgments about what a person is saying based on the emotional tone
— Body language
Facial expressions, eye contact, level of distractedness, tone of voice
— Before the part of the brain that interprets the meaning of words is active.
If you feel that something your communication partner does is “stupid,” describing the behavior in the kindest language will not hide your true feelings, although it may well make you seem disingenuous or manipulative. Think of your gut reaction when someone uses “communication techniques” on you. Do you feel respected and valued or manipulated and patronized?
If It’s Important, Know Your Goal
Be clear on your goal in speaking with your partner.
Do you want to:
Get your partner to do something or stop doing something?
Express yourself and be heard?
Justify your negative feelings?
In intimate relationships, most people identify number 4 as the ultimate goal of communication. Yet their body language, tone of voice, facial expressions, and eye contact almost always indicate that their goals are numbers 1-3. What seems to them as failures to communicate are really failures to manipulate, broadcast, and justify.
The problem with goal number 1 is that it requires submission, and human beings hate to submit. People will almost invariably resist what seem like attempts to control them. When they do submit, they do it resentfully. Accumulative resentment destroys relationships.
You don’t want submission in a love relationship; you want cooperation which means you must show value. (It’s a simple formula: The valued self cooperates; the devalued self resists.) But you can’t just express value in words. Unless you feel it, the expression will be hollow and do more harm than good.
The trouble with goal number 2 is that strictly speaking, we can never express feelings without changing them. Mental focus amplifies and magnifies, creating a psychological equivalent to the observer effect in physics. Moreover, the brain loads into implicit memory other times you’ve experienced the feeling you’re trying to express. This gives historical meaning to your feelings that go beyond the current situation. Your communication partner will be focused on the situation (loaded with their own personal history) and will be unlikely to give the same meaning to the feelings you’re trying to express.
In intimate relationships, feeling heard is never enough. At those times when you felt heard in your relationship – when your communication skills worked – did you then feel closer, more connected, more valued? Did you feel more loving, caring, kind, and compassionate? If not, your partner probably felt on some level that your “communication” was part of an attempt to manipulate or control.
Goal number 3 falters because it’s difficult to justify negative feelings in a relationship without sounding accusatory, regardless of what communication techniques you employ. Justifying feelings is subject to confirmation bias
– you will only consider evidence that supports the emotional state while overlooking everything else. Your focus will amplify and magnify the negative, making everything and everyone else less important, which is why you almost always get reactive rather than validating the response.
A connection is basically the attunement of emotional states. Though it doesn’t have to be positive (you can be attuned to your spouse at the funeral of a loved one), attunement cannot exist in a state of emotional reactivity, when a negative feeling in one causes chaos or shut down in the other. It is extremely difficult to regulate emotional reactivity with words. Even when there is no hidden Motivation to convey how the other is failing or defective, merely attempting to translate the emotional experience into words runs a high risk of sounding artificial or, worse, manipulative or dishonest.
Positive attunement occurs through interest and caring, that is, one has to be interested in and show sympathy for the other. Interest and caring, like all emotional states, are conveyed primarily by facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice, not by words or communication techniques.
Bottom line: Change your emotional state and the words will follow, but it won’t work the other way around.
How Communication Techniques Can Make Intimate Relationships Worse
When people are emotionally disconnected, the use of communication techniques makes them feel manipulated, and not just because the most popular ones are patently unnatural, more suited for a therapist’s office than a living room, kitchen, or bathroom. There is almost always a hidden agenda in the use of communication techniques – goals 1-3 above.
There no need for making the mathematic Equation . Communication between you and your partner must be clear and honest.
Dating and uncertainty go hand in hand. Inevitably you wonder if you will ever meet “the one” or whether someone will ever love you. People looking for love find love eventually. That’s not to suggest that the process of getting there is easy.
It is a reality that some people simply have a harder time than other meeting people and dating. There are many explanations but what is most important to understand is that having a hard time meeting someone does not mean that there is something wrong with you. Some people simply have a harder time meeting people period. We are all different and some people do better at social interactions and meeting potential people to date. Some just don’t meet people with the same ease. Is it a skill you can learn or is it that’s just the way it is? It’s both.. Working with a therapist to better understand who you are and what your project is certainly a positive in the dating process.
Dating requires stamina. You need to develop the stomach for failures and disappointments. Intrinsic to dating is most likely a series of failures before the success of meeting “the one.” It is counterintuitive insofar as many things in life require a series of successes whereas dating is inevitably a series of encounters and relationships that failed for one reason or another preceding success. You need to pass a series of courses in order to graduate but with dating, you fail over and over again before you “graduate” from dating to a successful relationship. That’s hard.
And people with high sensitivity have the worst time meeting people to date. They are the ones that others deem “fussy”, usually because they just know that they couldn’t be with that person—more than just an intuitive feeling. In the first few minutes of meeting someone, we all have an idea of whether there’s any attraction but some people really know. And they walk away quickly. They know what they know. Nevertheless, it’s not a bad idea to make sure that your reasons are sound. The fact that his/her earlobes are not symmetrical is probably not a good reason to turn down a second date.
Problematic to dating is having patience with what is out of your power to control. Particularly for smart successful people who can make things happen. Not so in dating. It’s not like you can walk into Bloomingdale’s and choose a boyfriend or girlfriend in the relationship department. Compatibility, chemistry, and timing are all variables out of your control. Dating requires that you understand and accept that.
It’s been evident that if a person is open to a relationship, they will eventually meet someone. The emphasis should be on meeting someone appropriate and not just “someone.”Some people meet their “someone” in a chance encounter and some have had to endure a constructed process of endless first dates and failed relationships The reality is that the world is populated with many people and in as much as you are looking for “someone,” “ someone” is looking for you too. The point is to not give up and remain focused on your goal. It helps to be open, patient and faithful. It also helps to have a trusted friend or therapist to remind you that someone at some point will love you. After all, relationships are a leap of faith.
A human being has the choice of many things, but since the world exists no one has won the biggest prize of all time CHOOSE YOUR FAMILY. You do not choose your family.
It’s not because you hate them that they’re not related to you. You will always share this strongest blood tie
It means that you are forever attached whether you like it or not.
To say that the family is sacred does not mean the absence of conflicts, the most important is to strive for a compromise and protect unbreakable blood tie, find a way so everybody will do his best and preserve this most precious gift.
In case of conflicts everyone gets the legal vote the blame is the other one, but one thing is even if it is the case the fault should not win over the reason for being who you are.
Here is the key to resolving family conflicts.
1. Schedule a time for positive communication
Avoid pointing to others or make accusations because no one is holy everyone has a black folder. It must communicate with respect and value others. This will help to start calm and soothe the spirits.
2. Make your goal of reconciling yourself
Avoid playing the judge, thinking that everything is fine on your side,
that other family members come to apologize to you. Because if everyone finds himself in the same positions it will be very difficult for everyone. Remember that the goal is to improve things, but not to win on others.
3. Know the origin of the problem
Determine the root of the problem from the beginning and clearly state how it bothers, listen to others, their opinions, fears, inquiries
Avoid feeling diminished or frustrated if your name is ever quoted in anything, after all, it is a page in the book of life, write it as it is.
4. Listen without interrupting.
Make an effort to listen even if it bothers you. Active listening is about identifying the other person’s tone and body language, allowing them to speak without interruption or remark, and make sure you understand.
Listening motivates others to want to listen to you, it also serves to relax the atmosphere, and rebuilds trust in the group.
5. Evaluate and value the point of view of each member.
The evaluation shows the other that you recognize it, since valorization means that you accept their thoughts, their opinions. Even though your own opinions may differ greatly, but validating demonstrates that you consider the other person as human, use the words of respects, emphasize the positive elements that you recognize from other family members.
6. Find a solution together.
Once everyone has expressed, his concerns, opinions, fears is a time to look for a compromise. Each person gives suggestions
All family members should feel good about the proposed solution. Write everything and make a commitment to respect it.
PS If you are unable to resolve your conflicts, ask for help from family members as uncles or friends or a specialist.